565 research outputs found

    Sub-10 ps time tagging of electromagnetic showers with scintillating glasses and SiPMs

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    The high energy physics community has recently identified an e+e‚ąíe^+e^- Higgs factory as one of the next-generation collider experiments, following the completion of the High Luminosity LHC program at CERN.The moderate radiation levels expected at such colliders compared to hadron colliders, enable the use of less radiation tolerant but cheaper technologies for the construction of the particle detectors. This opportunity has triggered a renewed interest in the development of scintillating glasses for the instrumentation of large detector volumes such as homogeneous calorimeters. While the performance of such scintillators remains typically inferior in terms of light yield and radiation tolerance compared to that of many scintillating crystals, substantial progress has been made over the recent years. In this paper we discuss the time resolution of cerium-doped Alkali Free Fluorophosphate scintillating glasses, read-out with silicon photo-multipliers in detecting single charged tracks and at different positions along the longitudinal development of an electromagnetic shower, using respectively 150~GeV pions and 100~GeV electron beams at the CERN SPS H2 beam line. A single sensor time resolution of 14.4~ps and 5-7~ps was measured respectively in the two cases. With such a performance the present technology has the potential to address an emerging requirement of future detectors at collider experiments: measuring the time-of-flight of single charged particles as well as that of neutral particles showering inside the calorimeter and the time development of showers

    Application of AOPs to assist regulatory assessment of chemical risks - Case studies, needs and recommendations

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    While human regulatory risk assessment (RA) still largely relies on animal studies, new approach methodologies (NAMs) based on in vitro, in silico or non-mammalian alternative models are increasingly used to evaluate chemical hazards. Moreover, human epidemiological studies with biomarkers of effect (BoE) also play an invaluable role in identifying health effects associated with chemical exposures. To move towards the next generation risk assessment (NGRA), it is therefore crucial to establish bridges between NAMs and standard approaches, and to establish processes for increasing mechanistically-based biological plausibility in human studies. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework constitutes an important tool to address these needs but, despite a significant increase in knowledge and awareness, the use of AOPs in chemical RA remains limited. The objective of this paper is to address issues related to using AOPs in a regulatory context from various perspectives as it was discussed in a workshop organized within the European Union partnerships HBM4EU and PARC in spring 2022. The paper presents examples where the AOP framework has been proven useful for the human RA process, particularly in hazard prioritization and characterization, in integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA), and in the identification and validation of BoE in epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, several limitations were identified that hinder the optimal usability and acceptance of AOPs by the regulatory community including the lack of quantitative information on response-response relationships and of efficient ways to map chemical data (exposure and toxicity) onto AOPs. The paper summarizes suggestions, ongoing initiatives and third-party tools that may help to overcome these obstacles and thus assure better implementation of AOPs in the NGRA

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an