Archivio istituzionale della ricerca - Università di Brescia

    Il rifiuto del trattamento sanitario, a scanso d'ogni equivoco

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    Il principio di generale volontarietà delle cure e il conseguente diritto di rifiutare qualsivoglia trattamento sanitario paiono inficiati da tre equivoci ricorrenti (che il presente contributo si propone d’indagare e fors’anche di risolvere), riguardo, rispettivamente, alla natura della posizione di garanzia dal medico rivestita ex art. 40 c.p.; all’interpretazione del requisito dell’attualità della volontà del paziente e a che cosa, infine, possa essere oggetto di tale dissenso. Inoltre, ai fini del rispetto dell’autodeterminazione individuale in àmbito sanitario, determinanti appaiono il ruolo e i poteri attribuiti all’amministratore di sostegno eventualmente designato, nonché la validità delle direttive anticipate: elementi, questi, troppo spesso sottoposti, nel nostro ordinamento, alla mutevole valutazione di differenti orientamenti giurisprudenziali. Infine, oggetto d’analisi sono le voci di danno suscettibili di riparazione a séguito della violazione del dissenso informato opposto dal paziente, nonché le problematiche relative alla quantificazione di tale risarcimento — anche in relazione alle stesse funzioni svolte dalla responsabilità civile

    A cooperative Top-Down/Bottom-Up Technique for Motion Field Segmentation

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    The segmentation of video sequences into regions underlying a coherent motion is one of the most useful processing for video analysis and coding. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that exploits the advantages of both top-down and bottom-up techniques for motion eld segmentation. To remove camera motion, a global motion estimation and compensation is rst performed. Local motion estimation is then carried out relying on a traslational motion model. Starting from this motion eld, a two-stage analysis based on ane models takes place. In the rst stage, using a top-down segmentation technique, macro-regions with coherent ane motion are extracted. In the second stage, the segmentation of each macro-region is rened using a bottom-up approach based on a motion vector clustering. In order to further improve the accuracy of the spatio-temporal segmentation, a Markov Random Field (MRF)-inspired motion-and-intensity based renement step is performed to adjust objects boundaries

    The application of environmental flow regulations to small hydropower plants in alpine areas

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    within a framework of conflicting needs and under water scarcity scenarios, environmental issues are assuming more and more relevance in water cycle management. An important role in this context is played by the minimum discharge release downstream of diversion structures, the so-called “environmental flow”, aiming at assuring acceptable ecological conditions along natural watercourses. In this paper the regulation criteria adopted in several European alpine countries will be briefly discussed. The implementation of environmental flow regulations to small hydropower plants in the province of Brescia (Northern Italy), which is one of the most relevant Italian district in terms of number of hydropower plants, installed capacity and energy production, will be presented. In particular, the prevailing environmental flow release devices and their main technical characteristics, operating features and design criteria are briefly discussed. The introduction of environmental flow legislation entails both benefits and disadvantages which are often difficult to quantify. This paper gives a contribution to this costs-benefits analysis, by estimating the loss of energy producibility for a small alpine hydropower plant, related to the enforcement of environmental flow regulations and to the design criteria of the release devices

    Influence of the relative rib area on bond behaviour

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    Steel-to-concrete bond is a basic aspect of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures both at serviceability and ultimate states. When bond rules were originally developed, experimental results were mainly obtained on normal- strength concrete and a minimum relative rib area (bond index) was required by building codes to ensure good bond properties. The arrival into the market of high-performance concrete and newer structural needs may require different bond indexes. In the present paper, the experimental results of pull-out tests on short anchorages are presented. Several pull-out tests on ribbed bars, embedded in cubes of normal- and high-strength concrete with a concrete cover of 4.5 times the bar diameter, were carried out in order to better understand the influence of the relative rib area and bar diameter on the local bond behaviour, as well as on the splitting crack width generated by the wedging action of ribs. A total of 96 tests were performed on machined bars of three different diameters (12, 16 and 20 mm) with a bond index ranging from 0.040 to 0.105. The results of 55 pull-out tests on commercial hot-rolled ribbed bars of four different diameters (12, 20, 40 and 50 mm) are also presented to confirm that the bond response also depends on bar diameter (size effect). Experimental results provide information concerning the influence of the relative rib area on bond strength and on the bursting force due to the rib’s wedge action. As the minimum measured bond strength of rebars was always markedly greater than the minimum bond strength required by building codes even when low bond indexes were adopted, the test results point out the possibility of reducing the minimum value of the relative rib area required by Eurocode 2 without limiting the safety coefficient of bond. The reduction also allows a higher structural ductility that can be achieved due to a greater strain penetration of the rebars from concrete cracks

    Outward FDI from Italy and its policy context

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    Italian companies started to invest abroad in the 1960s in search of new markets. However, Italy’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) performance is quite modest compared with that of other European Union (EU) countries, mainly due to structural characteristics like the low number of large firms, the specialization in traditional low- and medium-technology manufacturing industries and the almost negligible activity in advanced services. The global economic and financial crisis seriously affected the Italian economy. However, the positive trend of Italian OFDI was not interrupted, and in 2009 OFDI flows remained stable compared to 2008. Habitually silent on this policy area in earlier decades, the Italian Government has recently shown a more favorable stance toward OFDI, introducing specific policy measures addressed to small and medium-sized enterprises, which have started to expand strongly abroad – these now constitute almost 90% of Italian multinational enterprises (MNEs)

    Line Polar Grassmann Codes of Orthogonal type

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    Polar Grassmann codes of orthogonal type have been introduced in I. Cardinali and L. Giuzzi, \emph{Codes and caps from orthogonal Grassmannians}, {Finite Fields Appl.} {\bf 24} (2013), 148-169. They are subcodes of the Grassmann code arising from the projective system defined by the Pl\"ucker embedding of a polar Grassmannian of orthogonal type. In the present paper we fully determine the minimum distance of line polar Grassmann Codes of orthogonal type for q odd
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