Digital.CSIC

    Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase improve seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake and drought tolerance in tobacco

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    The effects of over-expression of two cytosolic antioxidant enzymes (Cu, Zn-SOD and/or APX) on plant nutrition, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, seed viability and germination in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) under deficit irrigation or salinity conditions were investigated. Three transgenic lines of tobacco were used in this study: line 17, harboring 2 copies of the cytosolic CuZn-SOD (cytsod) gene; line 51, with 2 copies of the cytosolic APX (cytapx) gene and line 39, harboring one copy of each gene. Over-expression of cytosolic antioxidants enzymes in tobacco plants resulted in a better growth performance that correlated with an improved photosynthetic capacity and nutrient uptake. Moreover, cytsod or cytapx genes promoted seed germination, and enhanced tolerance to mild water stress. In addition, this enhanced antioxidant capacity protected seeds from ageing during prolonged storage, and stimulated germination under salt stress conditions. These results suggest that cytosolic antioxidant transgenes are useful tools to improve drought tolerance, nutrient uptake and seed germination under stressful conditions.PDV acknowledges the CSIC and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for his ‘Ramon y Cajal’ research contract, co-financed by FEDER funds. This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Project CICYT BFU2009-07443) co-financed by FEDER funds, and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Project INIA, RTA2013-00026-C03-00).Peer reviewe

    Uso de compost que incluyen cenizas de biomasa para el cultivo de sandía

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    5 páginas.-- 4 tablas.-- 10 referenciasLa biomasa representa entre el 8 y el 15% del suministro energético mundial como electricidad, calor y combustibles para transporte, y podría contribuir hasta un 33-50% del consumo de energía primaria en 2050. Buena parte de esta energía se obtiene por combustión directa de biomasa generando 476 millones de toneladas de cenizas. Por el contrario de las cenizas derivadas del carbón, las cenizas de biomasa están libres de elementos contaminantes y en el caso de las de biomasa derivada de productos agrícolas y agroindustriales suelen presentar concentraciones apreciables de elementos fertilizantes como K, Mg, además de Ca por lo que su ciclo puede completarse si son reutilizadas en agricultura en lugar de depositadas en vertedero. En el presente trabajo se estudia el uso de un compost mixto de residuos agroindustriales y cenizas de orujo de aceituna como enmienda en un cultivo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus variedad Augusta). Como comparación se usaron tratamientos con el mismo compost de residuos agroindustriales o con fertilización mineral sólo (Control, 220 kg K2O ha-1 como KCl). El compost con cenizas se aplicó a una dosis de 10.000 kg ha-1 y el compost sin cenizas a la dosis de 20.000 kg ha-1. Cada tratamiento se efectuó por cuadruplicado, cultivando la sandía al aire libre. Se determinaron las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento y estado nutricional del cultivo. Los resultados indican que la inclusión de este tipo de cenizas en las enmiendas de cultivos exigentes nutrientes como potasio puede ser ventajosa, ya que se mantiene la producción del tratamiento control (alrededor de 100000 kg ha-1) pero con mayor tamaño del fruto (más 1,3 kg/fruto en el tratamiento con cenizas).Este trabajo se ha realizado en el marco del proyecto CTQ2013-46804-C2-1-R financiado por el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad y ha sido parcialmente financiado por el programa FEDER de la Junta de Andalucía. Los autores agradecen a la empresa Fertiormont por la cesión de los productos.Peer reviewe

    Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

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    The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC), measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC), was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell−1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell−1) = −2.35 × cellular volume (CV, μm3 cell−1) 0.90 (± 0.3), with a slope (0.90) not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 to 5.17%, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potentialf flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.This is a contribution to the “Malaspina 2010” COSOLIDER project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (CSD2008-00077).Peer reviewedPeer Reviewe

    Rescatar, ¿a quién?

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    Vaquerizo, D.; Ruiz, A. B.; Delgado, M. (Eds.)[ES] Este texto revisa la situación de la Arqueología dentro de la sociedad del conocimiento. Examina hasta qué punto la necesaria adaptación de la Arqueología a los nuevos contextos requiere examinar críticamente su relación con el patrimonio cultural y la situación de éste en el presente. Se propone una caracterización del patrimonio como significante flotante. Se menciona el agotamiento del modelo de Arqueología emanado del Convenio de Malta y se plantea la necesidad de adaptarse al Convenio de Faro. Más allá de éste, el texto apunta que el horizonte básico de transformación hacia una Arqueología comprometida con el presente depende directamente de su relación con los modos de definir la subjetividad y las estrategias de individuación en la trans-modernidad.[EN] This text reviews the situation of Archaeology within the knowledge society. It examines the extent to which the necessary adaptation of Archeology to new contexts requires a critical examination of its relation to cultural heritage and its present situation. I propose a characterization of the heritage as a floating signifier. The text also refers to the depletion of the model of Archaeology arisen from the Malta Convention and the need to adapt to the Faro Convention. Beyond this, the text points out that the basic horizon of transformation towards an Archeology committed to the urgencies of the present relies directly on its relation with the ways of defining subjectivity and the strategies of individuation in the Upper Modernity.Este doble volumen es resultado del Proyecto de Investigación Del registro estratigráfico a la sociedad del conocimiento: el patrimonio arqueológico urbano y rural como agente de desarrollo sostenible (ciudad y territorio), financiado por la Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, en el marco del Programa estatal de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación orientada a los retos de la sociedad, Convocatoria 2013, Modalidad 1: Proyectos de I+D+I (Ref.: HAR2013-43389-R). 2014-2016. Ha colaborado además UCOPress, Editorial de la Universidad de Córdoba.Peer reviewe

    Variations in brain DNA

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    It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain) of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain.This study was supported by grants from the BBVA Foundation and MICINN-MINECO.Peer reviewedPeer Reviewe

    Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research

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    Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signaling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signaling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function. Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signaling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated mechanisms. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds.This work was partially funded by the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant RGPIN-2014-06468 to Abel Rosado and funding from the Canada Research Chairs program. John Vaughan-Hirsch is funded through the BBSRC Doctoral Training Programme. Anthony Bishopp is supported by the Royal Society through a University Research Fellowship. Andrea Chini is supported by a “Ramon y Cajal” fellowship (RYC-2010-05680) and this work was partially funded the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad project BIO2013-44407-R, the AECID AP/040886/11 and the CSIC i-COOP060. This project was supported by NSTIP strategic technologies programs, number (11-BIO-2119-02) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to Andrea Chini.Peer reviewedPeer Reviewe

    Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi i cosmology with unitary dynamics

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    14 pags., 2 apps.The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, a choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invariance under the spatial Killing symmetries, unitarity of the dynamics selects a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, up to unitary equivalence. In this work, we generalize these results to anisotropic spacetimes with shear, which are therefore not conformally symmetric, by considering the case of a free scalar field in a Bianchi I cosmology. © 2016 American Physical SocietyThis work was partially supported by the research grant Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Project No. FIS2014-54800-C2-2-P from Spain; COST Action MP1405 QSPACE, supported by European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST); and Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México IN113115 and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología 237351 from Mexico. M. M.-B. acknowledges financial support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and J. O. from National Science Foundation Grants No. NSF-PHY- 1305000, No. PHY-1505411, the Eberly research funds of Penn State (USA) and Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Basicas (Uruguay).Peer Reviewe

    Bound and unbound nuclear systems at the drip lines: A one-dimensional model

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    22 págs.; 13 figs.; 1 tab.; 1 app.We construct a one-dimensional toy model to describe the main features of Borromean nuclei at the continuum threshold. The model consists of a core and two valence neutrons, unbound in the mean potential, that are bound by a residual point contact density-dependent interaction. Different discretization procedures are used (harmonic oscillator and transformed harmonic oscillator bases, or use of large rigid wall box). Resulting energies and wave functions, as well as inelastic transition intensities, are compared within the different discretization techniques, as well as with the exact results in the case of one particle and with the results of the di-neutron cluster model in the two particles case. Despite its simplicity, this model includes the main physical features of the structure of Borromean nuclei in an intuitive and computationally affordable framework, and will be extended to direct reaction calculations. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UKPart of this work was funded by MINECO grant FIS2014-53448-C2-2-P. LM thanks the University of Huelva, where part of this work was done with the finantial support of the Erasmus Placement program.Peer Reviewe

    The Spanish Transition Forty Years Later. Democracy, Devolution and Pluralism

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    El trabajo realiza un balance de los resultados de la transición española a la democracia cuarenta años después de su culminación. Las claves de un prestigio internacional que se ha visto relativamente eclipsado con el tiempo estriban en la incapacidad para estabilizar el sistema territorial, la deficiente secularización del Estado para hacer frente a la creciente diversidad interna de la sociedad española y las carencias en los aspectos ligados a la justicia transicional, que a largo plazo han repercutido negativamente en la cultura política e institucional del país.With the death of Franco in 1975, Spain faced multiple challenges, including how best to manage the transition from fascist dictatorship to democracy while also addressing the rise of nationalist movements in Catalonia and the Basque Country seeking autonomy. That the leaders of the democratic transition would build territorial pluralism into their conception of democratization was by no means inevitable. Why and how did democratization and pluralism intersect during the Spanish democratic transition? Forty years on, what does the Spanish experience tell us about the relationship between democracy and devolution and the changing place of pluralism within the self-identity of the country? Which sources of exclusion stubbornly endure?Global Centre for Pluralism (Canada)Peer reviewe

    Grape Resveratrol Increases Serum Adiponectin and Downregulates Inflammatory Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, One-Year Clinical Trial in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

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    This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.[Purpose] The grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol exerts cardiovascular benefits but evidence from randomized human clinical trials is very limited. We investigated dose-depending effects of a resveratrol-containing grape supplement on stable patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated according to currently accepted guidelines for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.[Methods] In a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, one-year follow-up, 3-arm pilot clinical trial, 75 stable-CAD patients received 350 mg/day of placebo, resveratrol-containing grape extract (grape phenolics plus 8 mg resveratrol) or conventional grape extract lacking resveratrol during 6 months, and a double dose for the following 6 months. Changes in circulating inflammatory and fibrinolytic biomarkers were analyzed. Moreover, the transcriptional profiling of inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was explored using microarrays and functional gene expression analysis.[Results] After 1 year, in contrast to the placebo and conventional grape extract groups, the resveratrol-containing grape extract group showed an increase of the anti-inflammatory serum adiponectin (9.6 %, p = 0.01) and a decrease of the thrombogenic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) (−18.6 %, p = 0.05). In addition, 6 key inflammation-related transcription factors were predicted to be significantly activated or inhibited, with 27 extracellular-space acting genes involved in inflammation, cell migration and T-cell interaction signals presenting downregulation (p < 0.05) in PBMCs. No adverse effects were detected in relation to the study products.[Conclusions] Chronic daily consumption of a resveratrol-containing grape nutraceutical could exert cardiovascular benefits in stable-CAD patients treated according to current evidence-based standards, by increasing serum adiponectin, preventing PAI-1 increase and inhibiting atherothrombotic signals in PBMCs.This study was supported by public funds: Projects CICYT-BFU2007-60576 and Consolider-Ingenio 2010 (CSD2007-00063, Fun-C-Food) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) and GERM-06-04486 (Fundación Séneca, Murcia, Spain). Dr. Tomé-Carneiro received a FPI grant from MICINN and Dr. Larrosa received a JAE-DOC contract from the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC, Spain).Peer reviewe
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