The 60 years before the announcement of "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s" witnessed a remarkable number of observational and theoretical close approaches to what is now called the cosmic microwave background, though it had a wider variety of names in the past. We explore some of these, with special attention to the activities of Simon Newcomb, George Gamow, Andrew McKellar, Edward Ohm, and Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
We report the temperature and pressure dependence of the electrical resistivity and Hall constant of single crystal SmB for temperatures ranging from 1.2 K to room temperature, and pressures from 1 bar to 80 kbar. Our results indicate that at low pressures SmB is an insulator, but undergoes a sudden transition to metallic behavior at a pressure of 50 kbar. © 1994. 6
Abstract Tropical cyclone (TC) size is an important factor directly and indirectly influencing track, intensity, and related hazards, such as storm surge. Using a semi-idealized version of the operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model (HWRF), the authors show that both enabling cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) and enhancing planetary boundary layer (PBL) vertical mixing can encourage wider storms by enhancing TC outer-core convective activity. While CRF acts primarily above the PBL, eddy mixing moistens the boundary layer from below, both making peripheral convection more likely. Thus, these two processes can cooperate and compete, making their influences difficult to deconvolve and complicating the evaluation of model physics improvements, especially since the sensitivity to both decreases as the environment becomes less favorable. Further study shows not only the magnitude of the eddy mixing coefficient but also the shape of it can determine the TC size and structure
The hypothesis that discharges from afferent nerves from muscle stretch receptors do not participate in kinesthesis has been substantiated by test of discrimination thresholds. In awake, unrestrained cats, nerve stimulation activating group I and most group II sensory fibers (from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs) in pure muscular nerves failed to evoke sensory discrimination. Cutaneous nerve stimulation in the same animals produced sensory discrimination even below intensities required to elicit detectable nerve thresholds
Across two studies we investigated the relationship between moral relativism versus absolutism and moral behavior. In Experiment 1, we found that participants who read a relativist argument for tolerating female genital mutilation were more likely to cheat to win an incentivized raffle than participants who read an absolutist argument against female genital mutilation, or those in a control condition. In Experiment 2, participants who read a definition of morality phrased in absolutist terms expressed less willingness to engage in petty theft than those who read a definition of morality phrased in relativist terms, or those in a control condition. Experiment 2 also provided evidence that effects were not due to absolutist arguments signaling that fewer behaviors are morally permissible, nor to relativist arguments defending more disagreeable moral positions. Rather, the content of the philosophical positions themselves-the fact that relativism describes morality as subjective and culturally-historically contingent, whereas absolutism describes morality as objective and universal-makes individuals more likely to engage in immoral behaviors when exposed to moral relativism compared to moral absolutism. © 2013 Elsevier Inc
An Ecosystems and Vulnerable Populations Perspective on Solastalgia and Psychological Distress After a Wildfire.
We studied the relationship between psychological distress and relative resource and risk predictors, including loss of solace from the landscape (solastalgia), one year after the Wallow Fire, in Arizona, United States. Solastalgia refers to the distress caused by damage to the surrounding natural environment and it has not been examined for its relationship to psychological health. Doing so opens avenues of research that inquire into how land management might be able to support improved community resilience and psychological health outcomes after a wildfire. In 2012, we conducted a household survey mailed to all 1387 households in the five communities surrounding the fire. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale assessed psychological distress. In the multivariate analysis, higher solastalgia score and an adverse financial impact of the fire were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. Annual household income ≥ $80,000 and a higher family functioning score were associated with less psychological distress. Part-time residents were no more likely to have psychological distress than full-time residents. We conclude that dramatic transformation of a landscape by an environmental event such as a wildfire can reduce its value as a source of solace. These results call for novel post-wildfire community recovery interventions that wed forest management and community psychology