HAL-CEA

    Entrainment of Voluntary Movement to Undetected Auditory Regularities

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    International audienceIn physics “entrainment” refers to the synchronization of two coupled oscillators with similar fundamental frequencies. In behavioral science, entrainment refers to the tendency of humans to synchronize their movements with rhythmic stimuli. Here, we asked whether human subjects performing a tapping task would entrain their tapping to an undetected auditory rhythm surreptitiously introduced in the guise of ambient background noise in the room. Subjects performed two different tasks, one in which they tapped their finger at a steady rate of their own choosing and one in which they performed a single abrupt finger tap on each trial after a delay of their own choosing. In both cases we found that subjects tended to tap in phase with the inducing modulation, with some variability in the preferred phase across subjects, consistent with prior research. In the repetitive tapping task, if the frequency of the inducing stimulus was far from the subject’s own self-paced frequency, then entrainment was abolished, consistent with the properties of entrainment in physics. Thus, undetected ambient noise can influence self-generated movements. This suggests that uncued decisions to act are never completely endogenous, but are subject to subtle unnoticed influences from the sensory environment

    Adaptive Actin Networks

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    International audienceDespite their fundamental importance in the regulation of cell physiology, the mechanisms that confer cell adaptability to changes in the microenvironment are poorly understood. A recent study in Cell (Mueller et al., 2017) examines the capability of branched actin networks to respond and adapt to mechanical load in vivo

    Résultats d'existence globale et limites asymptotiques pour un modèle de fluide radiatif.

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    Séminaire Laurent Schwartz—Équations aux dérivées partielles et applications. Année 2014–2015, Exp. No. VII, 17 pp., Ed. Éc. Polytech., Palaiseau, 2016

    Strand-specific transcriptomes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in response to interactions with ground beef microbiota: interactions between microorganisms in raw meat

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    France GenomiqueInternational audienceBackground: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are zoonotic agents associated with outbreaks worldwide. Growth of EHEC strains in ground beef could be inhibited by background microbiota that is present initially at levels greater than that of the pathogen E. coli. However, how the microbiota outcompetes the pathogenic bacteria is unknown. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways of EHEC that were altered by natural microbiota in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the growth and survival of EHECs in ground beef.Results: Based on 16S metagenomics analysis, we identified the microbial community structure in our beef samples which was an essential preliminary for subtractively analyzing the gene expression of the EHEC strains. Then, we applied strand-specific RNA-seq to investigate the effects of this microbiota on the global gene expression of EHEC O26(21765) and O157(EDL933) strains by comparison with their behavior in beef meat without microbiota. In strain O26(21765), the expression of genes connected with nitrate metabolism and nitrite detoxification, DNA repair, iron and nickel acquisition and carbohydrate metabolism, and numerous genes involved in amino acid metabolism were down-regulated. Further, the observed repression of ftsL and murF, involved respectively in building the cytokinetic ring apparatus and in synthesizing the cytoplasmic precursor of cell wall peptidoglycan, might help to explain the microbiota's inhibitory effect on EHECs. For strain O157(EDL933), the induced expression of the genes implicated in detoxification and the general stress response and the repressed expression of the peR gene, a gene negatively associated with the virulence phenotype, might be linked to the survival and virulence of O157:H7 in ground beef with microbiota.Conclusion: In the present study, we show how RNA-Seq coupled with a 16S metagenomics analysis can be used to identify the effects of a complex microbial community on relevant functions of an individual microbe within it. These findings add to our understanding of the behavior of EHECs in ground beef. By measuring transcriptional responses of EHEC, we could identify putative targets which may be useful to develop new strategies to limit their shedding in ground meat thus reducing the risk of human illnesses

    Search for additional heavy neutral Higgs and gauge bosons in the ditau final state produced in 36 fb$^{−1}$ of pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s}=13 $ TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    International audienceA search for heavy neutral Higgs bosons and Z′ bosons is performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb$^{−1}$ from proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s}=13 $ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC during 2015 and 2016. The heavy resonance is assumed to decay to τ$^{+}$τ$^{−}$ with at least one tau lepton decaying to final states with hadrons and a neutrino. The search is performed in the mass range of 0.2-2.25 TeV for Higgs bosons and 0.2-4.0 TeV for Z′ bosons. The data are in good agreement with the background predicted by the Standard Model. The results are interpreted in benchmark scenarios. In the context of the hMSSM scenario, the data exclude tan β > 1.0 for m$_{A}$ = 0.25 TeV and tan β > 42 for m$_{A}$ = 1.5 TeV at the 95% confidence level. For the Sequential Standard Model, Z$_{SSM}^{′}$ with m$_{Z′}$ < 2.42 TeV is excluded at 95% confidence level, while Z$_{NU}^{′}$ with m$_{Z ′}$ < 2.25 TeV is excluded for the non-universal G(221) model that exhibits enhanced couplings to third-generation fermions

    Search for squarks and gluinos in events with an isolated lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector