184535 research outputs found

    Late Triassic initial closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean in the western segment: constraints from sedimentological, detrital zircon ages and paleomagnetic evidence

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    The Mesozoic evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean (MOO) has significantly affected the configuration of the modern Asian continent. Although a scissor-like closure of the MOO has long been proposed, when and how the MOO closed are still hotly debated, especially the timing of initial closure of the MOO in its western segment, hindering our understanding of both the evolution of the MOO and tectonics of the northern Asian continent. In order to uncover the timing of initial closure of the MOO, we performed a multidisciplinary study in sedimentology, detrital zircon U-Pb dating and paleomagnetic on the Late Triassic clastic strata from the Tarvagatay Block and the Amuria Block (AMB) on the both sides of the Mongol-Okhotsk Suture. The upper Triassic strata on both sides of the suture were dominated by plant fossil-bearing alluvial-fluvial facies sediments, which unconformably overlain pre-Triassic geological units, indicating a terrestrial setting after the closure of the MOO. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating results revealed consistent age distribution patterns for samples from both sides of the suture with a predominant peak at ∼253-251 Ma and a secondary peak at ∼359-357 Ma, representing two main arc magmatic events during the bidirectional subduction of the MOO in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous and Late Permian-Early Triassic. Coeval Late Triassic paleomagnetic poles were obtained from the northern AMB and Tarvagatay Block, revealing a comparable paleolatitude of the AMB (∼31-33°) and Tarvagatay Block (∼32-34°) in the Late Triassic, arguing for that the western segment of the MOO should have closed at the Late Triassic. The compilation of sedimentology, detrital zircon U-Pb dating, magmatic and paleomagnetic evidence provides integrated constraints on the Late Triassic initial closure of the MOO in its western segment

    An updated mass-radius analysis of the 2017-2018 NICER data set of PSR J0030+0451

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    International audienceIn 2019 the NICER collaboration published the first mass and radius inferred for PSR J0030+0451, thanks to NICER observations, and consequent constraints on the equation of state characterising dense matter. Two independent analyses found a mass of 1.31.4M\sim 1.3-1.4\,\mathrm{M_\odot} and a radius of 13\sim 13\,km. They also both found that the hot spots were all located on the same hemisphere, opposite to the observer, and that at least one of them had a significantly elongated shape. Here we reanalyse, in greater detail, the same NICER data set, incorporating the effects of an updated NICER response matrix and using an upgraded analysis framework. We expand the adopted models and jointly analyse also XMM-Newton data, which enables us to better constrain the fraction of observed counts coming from PSR J0030+0451. Adopting the same models used in previous publications, we find consistent results, although with more stringent inference requirements. We also find a multi-modal structure in the posterior surface. This becomes crucial when XMM-Newton data is accounted for. Including the corresponding constraints disfavors the main solutions found previously, in favor of the new and more complex models. These have inferred masses and radii of [1.4M,11.5\sim [1.4 \mathrm{M_\odot}, 11.5 km] and [1.7M,14.5\sim [1.7 \mathrm{M_\odot}, 14.5 km], depending on the assumed model. They display configurations that do not require the two hot spots generating the observed X-rays to be on the same hemisphere, nor to show very elongated features, and point instead to the presence of temperature gradients and the need to account for them

    Summer and Autumn Insolation as the Pacemaker of Surface Wind and Precipitation Dynamics Over Tropical Indian Ocean During the Holocene: Insights From Paleoproductivity Records and Paleoclimate Simulations

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    International audienceAbstract Insolation is the engine of monsoon and Walker circulations over the tropical Indian Ocean. Here, we present Holocene coccolith‐related net primary productivity (NPP) signals from two sediment cores retrieved in the wind‐driven coastal upwelling systems off southern India and southern Sumatra. Upwelling‐induced NPP is enhanced during summer and autumn and is a powerful tool to reconstruct atmospheric features at a seasonal scale. Our records indicate that during summer and autumn, westerly winds off southern India strengthened from the early‐Holocene (EH) to late‐Holocene (LH), while southeasterly winds off southern Sumatra strengthened from the EH to mid‐Holocene (MH) and weakened from the MH to LH. Comparisons with previous paleoclimate records and simulations, allow us to confirm such wind patterns at a regional scale and identify distinct atmospheric features associated to insolation before and after the MH. From the EH to MH, as the insolation in the Northern Hemisphere weakens during summer and strengthens during autumn, the equatorial Indian Ocean is characterized by more vigorous Walker and monsoon circulations in summer and autumn, respectively. From the MH to LH, as the insolation weakens in the Northern Hemisphere during summer and over the equator during autumn, the equatorial Indian Ocean is influenced by a general reinforcement of the Walker circulation during both seasons, a feature that we relate to a modern negative IOD‐like mode. The changes in wind result in increasing precipitation over Indonesia and India from EH to MH and over Indonesia from MH to LH as India is getting dryer

    Understanding Interface Exchanges for Assessing Environmental Sorption of Additives from Microplastics: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

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    International audienceThough the impacts of plastic pollution have long been recognized, the presence, pervasiveness and ecotoxicological consequences of microplastic-i.e., plastic particles <5mm-contamination have only been explored over the last decade. Far less focus has been attributed to the role of these materials, and, particularly, microplastics, as vectors for a multitude of chemicals, including those (un)intentionally added to plastic products, but also organic pollutants already present in the environment. Owing to the ubiquitous presence of microplastics in all environmental matrices and to the diverse nature of their chemical and physical characteristics, thoroughly understanding the mechanistic uptake/release of these compounds is inherently complex, but necessary in order to better assess the potential impact of both microplastics and associated chemicals to and in the environment. Herein, we delve into the known processes and factors affecting these mechanisms. We center the discussion on microplastics and discuss some of the most prominent ecological implications of the sorption of this multitude of chemicals. Moreover, the key limitations on the currently available literature are described and a prospective outlook for the future research on the topic is presented

    New ESR dates from Lovedale, Free State, South Africa: implications for the study of tooth diagenesis

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    International audienceLovedale is the only open-air Middle Stone Age site in the Free State dated to early Marine Isotope Stage 4. Framing the chronology of such context, especially by taking into account diagenetic processes that may affect age results, is thus fundamental to understand modern human dynamics in the interior of South Africa. In a recent study, we investigated the effect of diagenesis on teeth samples collected for combined electron spin resonance and uranium-series dating at the site. By combining different characterisation methods, it was shown that the uranium (U) content of enamel varied in the specimens, and that it was positively correlated with the degree of crystallinity of carbonate hydroxyapatite, whereby larger amounts of U are associated with highly crystalline enamel. The large variability in U content was in contrast with the fact that teeth were found in the same depositional context. High levels of U in some of the samples limit the accuracy of age determinations, since several uncertainties remain regarding U uptake and leaching, which both affect dose rate modelling.In such complex cases, calculating minimum ages is the most cautious option. New samples were collected at the site during the excavation campaign in 2021. Enamel was analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with cathodoluminescence in order to determine its degree of atomic order and the presence of foreign ions (especially U), and the correlation between the two. We discuss here the contribution of U-uptake modelling on the age calculation, and present new ESR ages calculated assuming an early uptake of U, ranging from 84 ± 9 ka to 56 ± 5 ka. Together with previous ages obtained on the gravel layer, a weighted mean age of 64 ka can be used as a minimum age estimate for the base of the sequence

    ARES VI: Are 1D retrieval models accurate enough to characterize exo-atmospheres with transmission spectroscopy in the era of JWST and Ariel?

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    International audienceThe observed exoplanets transit spectra are usually retrieved using one-dimensional models to determine atmospheric composition. However, planetary atmospheres are three-dimensional. With the new state-of-the-art James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and future space telescopes such as Ariel (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey), we will be able to obtain increasingly accurate transit spectra. The 3D effects on the spectra will be visible, and we can expect biases in the 1D extractions. In order to elucidate these biases, we have built theoretical observations of transit spectra, from 3D atmospheric modeling through transit modeling to instrument modeling. For that purpose, we used a Global Climate Model (GCM) to simulate the atmosphere, a 3D-radiative transfer model to calculate theoretical transmission spectra, and adapted instrument software from JWST and Ariel to reproduce telescope noise. Next, we used a 1D-radiative transfer inversion model to retrieve the known input atmosphere and disentangle any biases that might be observed. The study has been done from warm planets to ultra-hot planets to assess biases as a function of average planet temperature. Three-dimensional effects are observed to be strongly non-linear from the coldest to the hottest planets. These effects also depend on the planet's metallicity and gravity. Considering equilibrium chemistry, 3D effects are observed through very strong variations for certain features of the molecule, or very small variations over the whole spectrum. We conclude that we cannot rely on the uncertainty of retrievals at all pressures, and that we must be cautious about the results of retrievals at the top of the atmosphere. However the results are still fairly close to the truth at mid altitudes (those probed). We also need to be careful about the chemical models used for planetary atmosphere. If the chemistry of one molecule is not correctly described, this will bias all the others, as well as the retrieved temperature. Finally, although fitting a wider wavelength range and higher resolution has been shown to increase retrievals accuracy, we show that this could depend on the wavelength range chosen, due to the accuracy on modeling the different features. In any case, 1D retrievals are still correct for the detection of molecules, even in the event of an erroneous abundance retrieval

    ABACO-2: a comprehensive model for microalgae-bacteria consortia validated outdoor at pilot-scale

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    International audienceModelling microalgae-bacteria in wastewater treatment systems has gained significant attention in the last few years. In this study, we present an enhanced version of the ABACO model, named ABACO-2, which demonstrates improved accuracy through validation in outdoor pilot-scale systems. ABACO-2 enables the comprehensive characterization of microalgae-bacteria consortia dynamics, allowing to predict the biomass concentration (microalgae, heterotrophic bacteria, and nitrifying bacteria) and nutrient evolution. The updated version of the model incorporates new equations for nutrient coefficient yields, oxygen mass balance, and microorganism cellular decay, while significantly reducing the number of calibrated parameters, simplifying the parameter identification. Calibration and validation were performed using data from a 80 m 2 raceway reactor operated in a semicontinuous mode over an extensive period (May to November, total of 206 days) at a fixed dilution rate of 0.2 day-1 (corresponding to 5 days of hydraulic retention time), where untreated urban wastewater was used as culture medium. ABACO-2 exhibited robustness, accurately forecasting biomass production, population dynamics, nutrient recovery, and prevailing culture conditions across a wide range of environmental and water composition conditions. Mathematical models are essential instruments for the industrial development and optimization of microalgae-related wastewater treatment processes, thereby contributing to the sustainability of the wastewater treatment industry

    Transport patterns and hydrodynamic context of the MERITE-HIPPOCAMPE cruise: Implications for contaminants distribution and origin

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    International audienceThis study aims at characterizing the hydrodynamic context and transport patterns that prevailed during the MERITE-HIPPOCAMPE cruise to assist in the interpretation of in-situ observations. The main physical attributes and structures (mesoscale eddies as well as fine-scale fronts and filaments) are analyzed based on various physical diagnostics. They were computed from satellite data and data-assimilative model outputs to describe ocean dynamics. The Northern and Algerian Currents were prominent features during the cruise while the western basin is divided by the vertically-tilted Balearic front. Temperature and salinity were used to distinguish different water masses at both surface and sub-surface. Sea-level anomalies, relative vorticity, and Okubo-Weiss parameter distributions have shown the presence of marked eddies around stations St10 and St11. Furthermore, Finite-Size Lyaponuv Exponents revealed that the former was rather located on a fine-scale filament near the edge of a cyclonic eddy while the latter was closer to the core of an anticyclone. Nearshore thermal fronts were detected with the Belkin and O'Reilly Algorithm (BOA), especially around stations St17 and St19. The potential coastal sources of contaminants were tested using Lagrangian Origin Maps (LOM), suggesting that stations St1, St2, St4, St11, and St15 were most likely influenced by coastal waters. Additionally, an atmospheric reanalysis combined with a Lagrangian dispersal model allowed for estimating wet deposition events of contaminants while tracking the fate of water masses where rainfall took place. Finally, we provide a set of explanatory quantitative and qualitative variables for future statistical analyses that aim at explaining the distribution of both chemical and biological samples collected during the cruise

    EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Westerlund 1 and 2 Open Clusters Survey

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    International audienceContext. With a mass exceeding several 10^4 solar masses and a rich and dense population of massive stars, supermassive young star clusters represent the most massive star-forming environment that is dominated by the feedback from massive stars and gravitational interactions among stars. Aims. In this paper we present the "Extended Westerlund 1 and 2 Open Clusters Survey" (EWOCS) project, which aims to investigate the influence of the starburst environment on the formation of stars and planets, and on the evolution of both low and high mass stars. The primary targets of this project are Westerlund 1 and 2, the closest supermassive star clusters to the Sun. Methods. The project is based primarily on recent observations conducted with the Chandra and JWST observatories. Specifically, the Chandra survey of Westerlund 1 consists of 36 new ACIS-I observations, nearly co-pointed, for a total exposure time of 1 Msec. Additionally, we included 8 archival Chandra/ACIS-S observations. This paper presents the resulting catalog of X-ray sources within and around Westerlund 1. Sources were detected by combining various existing methods, and photon extraction and source validation were carried out using the ACIS-Extract software. Results. The EWOCS X-ray catalog comprises 5963 validated sources out of the 9420 initially provided to ACIS-Extract, reaching a photon flux threshold of approximately 2x10^-8 photons/cm^2/s. The X-ray sources exhibit a highly concentrated spatial distribution, with 1075 sources located within the central 1 arcminute. We have successfully detected X-ray emissions from 126 out of the 166 known massive stars of the cluster, and we have collected over 71000 photons from the magnetar CXO J164710.20-45521

    Investigation of satellite vertical sensitivity on long-term retrieved lower tropospheric ozone trends

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    International audienceOzone is a potent air pollutant in the lower troposphere and an important short-lived climate forcer (SLCF) in the upper troposphere. Studies investigating long-term trends in tropospheric column ozone (TCO3) have shown large-scale spatiotemporal inconsistencies. Here, we investigate the long-term trends in lower tropospheric column ozone (LTCO3, surface-450 hPa sub-column) by exploiting a synergy of satellite and ozonesonde datasets and an Earth System Model (UKESM) over North America, Europe and East Asia for the decade 2008–2017. Overall, we typically find small LTCO3 linear trends with large uncertainty ranges from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), while model simulations indicate a stable LTCO3 tendency. Trends in the satellite a priori datasets show negligible trends indicating year-to-year sampling is not an issue. The application of the satellite averaging kernels (AKs) to the UKESM ozone profiles, accounting for the satellite vertical sensitivity and allowing for like-for-like comparisons, has a limited impact on the modelled LTCO3 tendency in most cases. While, in relative terms, this is more substantial (e.g. in the order of 100 %), the absolute magnitudes of the model trends show negligible change. However, as the model has a near-zero tendency, artificial trends were imposed on the model time-series (i.e. LTCO3 values rearranged from smallest to largest) to test the influence of the AKs but simulated LTCO3 trends remained small. Therefore, the LTCO3 tendency between 2008 and 2017 in northern hemispheric regions are likely small, with large uncertainties, and it is difficult to detect any small underlying linear trends due to inter-annual variability or other factors which require further investigation

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