True cosmic microwave background power spectrum estimation

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    International audienceAims. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost the entire statistical information of CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. We aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without knowing the cosmological parameters. Methods. The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is rst investigated in two dictionaries; discrete cosine transform (DCT) and wavelet transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with very few coe cients in these two dictionaries and hence is very compressible. Results. We studied the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we developed a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e., without a need to know the cosmological parameters. Conclusions. This smooth estimated spectrum can be used to simulate CMB maps with similar properties as the true CMB simulations with the correct cosmological parameters. This allows us to perform Monte Carlo simulations in a given project without having to know the cosmological parameters. The developed IDL code, TOUSI, for theoretical power spectrum using sparse estimation, will be released with the next version of ISAP

    Les mines des Beni Bou Ifrour-Ouixane (Rif Oriental) : un district ferrugineux néogène de type skarns The Beni Bou Ifrour-Ouixane mines (Eastern Rif), Neogene Skarn Type Iron Deposits

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    International audienceDistrict ferrugineux de type skarns, encaissé dans des alternances de schistes et calcaires dolomitiques et gréseux du Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé, avec les gisements de Ouixane, Axara-Imnassen et Bokoya-Setolazar. Minéralisations par remplacement pyrométasomatique des protolithes carbonatés en relation avec la montée d'intrusions dioritiques d'âge miocène. Les altérations métasomatiques progrades et rétrogrades ont donné lieu à des paragenèses minérales calco-silicatées complexes. Les données des inclusions fluides et des isotopes d'oxygène reflètent la présence d'un fluide en ébullition responsable de la mise en place, à haute température, des minéralisations ferrugineuses du stade prograde. Le fluide magmatique, hautement salin, se mélange avec un deuxième fluide de type météorique précipitant les minéralisations ferrugineuses du stade rétrograde et les paragenèses tardives à sulfures

    Rare earth element sorption onto hydrous manganese oxide: A modeling study

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    International audienceManganese oxides are important scavengers of rare earth elements (REE) in hydrosystems. However, it has been difficult to include Mn oxides in speciation models due to the lack of a comprehensive set of sorption reactions consistent with a given surface complexation model (SCM), as well as discrepancies between published sorption data and predictions using the available models. Surface complexation reactions for hydrous Mn oxide were described using a two surface site model and the diffuse double layer SCM. The specific surface area, surface side density, and pHzpc were fixed to 746 m2/g, 2.1 mmol/g, and 2.2, respectively. Two site types (triple bond; length of mdashXOH and triple bond; length of mdashYOH) were also used with pKa2 values of 2.35 (triple bond; length of mdashXOH) and 6.06 (triple bond; length of mdashYOH). The fraction of the high affinity sites was fixed at 0.36. Published REE sorption data were subsequently used to determine the equilibrium surface complexation constants, while considering the influence of pH, ionic strength, and metal loading. Log K increases from light REE to heavy REE and, more specifically, displays a convex tetrad effect. At low metal loading, the triple bond; length of mdashYOH site type strongly expresses its affinity toward REE, whereas at higher metal loading, the same is true for the triple bond; length of mdashXOH site type. This study thus provides evidence for heterogeneity in the distribution of the Mn oxide binding sites among REE

    The role of pressure solution creep in the ductility of the earth's upper crust

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    133 pagesInternational audienceThe aim of this review is to characterize the role of pressure solution creep in the ductility of the Earth's upper crust and to describe how this creep mechanism competes and interacts with other deformation mechanisms. Pressure solution creep is a major mechanism of ductile deformation of the upper crust, accommodating basin compaction, folding, shear zone development, and fault creep and interseismic healing. However, its kinetics is strongly dependent on the composition of the rocks (mainly the presence of phyllosilicates minerals that activate pressure solution) and on its interaction with fracturing and healing processes (that activate and slow down pressure solution, respectively). The present review combines three approaches: natural observations, theoretical developments, and laboratory experiments. Natural observations can be used to identify the pressure solution markers necessary to evaluate creep law parameters, such as the nature of the material, the temperature and stress conditions or the geometry of mass transfer domains. Theoretical developments help to investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes and to build theoretical creep laws. Laboratory experiments are implemented in order to test the models and to measure creep law parameters such as driving forces and kinetic coefficients. Finally, applications are discussed for the modelling of sedimentary basin compaction and fault creep. The sensitivity of the models to time is given particular attention: viscous versus plastic rheology during sediment compaction; steady state versus non-steady state behaviour of fault and shear zones. The conclusions discuss recent advances for modelling pressure solution creep and the main questions that remain to be solved

    The influence of climate change on flood risks in France ­- first estimates and uncertainty analysis

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    International audienceAbstract. This paper proposes a methodology to project the possible evolution of river flood damages due to climate change, and applies it to mainland France. Its main contributions are (i) to demonstrate a methodology to investigate the full causal chain from global climate change to local economic flood losses; (ii) to show that future flood losses may change in a very significant manner over France; (iii) to show that a very large uncertainty arises from the climate downscaling technique, since two techniques with comparable skills at reproducing reference river flows give very different estimates of future flows, and thus of future local losses. The main conclusion is thus that estimating future flood losses is still out of reach, especially at local scale, but that future national-scale losses may change significantly over this century, requiring policy changes in terms of risk management and land-use planning

    Geochemical evidence of mantle reservoir evolution during progressive rifting along the western Afar margin

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    International audienceThe Afar triple junction, where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and African Rift System extension zones converge, is a pivotal domain for the study of continental-to-oceanic rift evolution. The western margin of Afar forms the southernmost sector of the western margin of the Red Sea rift where that margin enters the Ethiopian flood basalt province. Tectonism and volcanism at the triple junction had commenced by ∼31Ma with crustal fissuring, diking and voluminous eruption of the Ethiopian-Yemen flood basalt pile. The dikes which fed the Oligocene-Quaternary lava sequence covering the western Afar rift margin provide an opportunity to probe the geochemical reservoirs associated with the evolution of a still active continental margin. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals that the western Afar margin dikes span the entire history of rift evolution from the initial Oligocene flood basalt event to the development of focused zones of intrusion in rift marginal basins. Major element, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf) data demonstrate temporal geochemical heterogeneities resulting from variable contributions from the Afar plume, depleted asthenospheric mantle, and African lithosphere. The various dikes erupted between 31Ma and 22Ma all share isotopic signatures attesting to a contribution from the Afar plume, indicating this initial period in the evolution of the Afar margin was one of magma-assisted weakening of the lithosphere. From 22Ma to 12Ma, however, diffuse diking during continued evolution of the rift margin facilitated ascent of magmas in which depleted mantle and lithospheric sources predominated, though contributions from the Afar plume persisted. After 10Ma, magmatic intrusion migrated eastwards towards the Afar rift floor, with an increasing fraction of the magmas derived from depleted mantle with less of a lithospheric signature. The dikes of the western Afar margin reveal that magma generation processes during the evolution of this continental rift margin are increasingly dominated by shallow decompressional melting of the ambient asthenosphere, the composition of which may in part be controlled by preferential channeling of plume material along the developing neo-oceanic axes of extension

    Evidence of an asymmetrical Keplerian disk in the Brγ and He I emission lines around the Be star HD 110432

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    9 pagesContext. HD 110432 was classified as a "γ Cas X-ray analog" since it has similar peculiar X-ray and optical characteristics, i.e. a hard-thermal X-ray variable emission and an optical spectrum affected by an extensive disk. Lopes de Oliveira et al. (2007) suggest that it might be a Be star harboring an accreting white dwarf or that the X-rays may come from an interaction between the surface of the star and its disk. Aims. To investigate the disk around this Be star we used the VLTI/AMBER instrument, which combines high spectral (R=12000) and high spatial (θmin =4 mas) resolutions. Methods. We constrain the geometry and kinematics of its circumstellar disk from the highest spatial resolution ever achieved on this star. Results. We obtain a disk extension in the Brγ line of 10.2 D⋆ and 7.8 D⋆ in the He I line at 2.05 μm assuming a Gaussian disk model. The disk is clearly following a Keplerian rotation. We obtained an inclination angle of 55◦, and the star is a nearly critical rotator with Vrot /Vc =1.00±0.2. This inclination is greater than the value found for γ Cas (about 42◦ , Stee et al. 2012), and is consistent with the inference from optical Fe II emission profiles by Smith & Balona (2006) that the inclination should be more than the γ Cas value. In the near-IR continuum, the disk of HD 110432 is 3 times larger than γ Cas's disk. We have no direct evidence of a companion around HD 110432, but it seems that we have a clear signature for disk inhomogeneities as detected for ζ Tau. This asymmetrical disk detection may be interpreted within the one-armed oscillation viscous disk framework. Another finding is that the disk size in the near-IR is similar to other Be stars with different spectral types and thus may be independent of the stellar parameters, as found for classical Be stars

    Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island)

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    International audienceThe recent activity of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano offers a rare opportunity to address the issue of Pb isotope behavior in volcanic fumaroles, as the composition of the degassing source is accurately and precisely known. Gas sublimates formed between 2007 and 2011 at temperature ranging from 400 to ca. 100 degrees C include Na-K sulfate (aphthitalite), Ca-Cu sulfate (e.g., gypsum), Na sulfate (thenardite), Ca-Mg-Al-Fe fluoride (e.g., ralstonite) and native sulfur. The high-temperature deposits show trace element patterns typical of volcanic gas (with Pb concentration up to 836 ppm) while the low-temperature deposits are depleted in most volatile elements (Pb <1 ppm) with the exception of Pd and Tl (in fluorides) and Se (in native sulfur). Only for low-temperature fluoride samples do Pb isotope compositions plot significantly outside the field of lavas. The isotopic shift is ascribed to leaching ubiquitous unradiogenic phases (e.g., sulfides) by acidic gas condensates. The similarity in Pb isotope signature between lavas and sublimate samples more representative of the gas phase (sulfates) indicates that the net fractionation of Pb isotopes resulting from volatilization and condensation processes is smaller than the precision of Pb isotope measurements (better than 60 ppm/a.m.u.). The absence of net fractionation could result from negligible isotope fractionation during Pb volatilization followed by extensive condensation of gaseous Pb, with possibly significant isotopic fractionation at this stage. Although this scenario has to be refined by more direct measurement of the gas phase, and its general applicability tested, it suggests that a small fraction (<10\%) of initially volatilized Pb ultimately escapes to the atmosphere, while the remaining dominant fraction is trapped in sublimates. As sublimates are rapidly dissolved and entrained by runoff, the fumarolic environment appears as a factory efficiently transferring isotopically unfractionated Pb from magmas towards the hydrological system and seawater. Resolving very small isotopic differences between magmas and their gaseous products remains an analytical challenge. High-precision Pb isotope measurements rest not only on instrumental performance but also on high-yield chemistry, as Pb isotopes drastically fractionate (800 ppm/a.m.u.) upon elution on anionic resin. For 50\% Pb recovery, the estimated isotopic bias is plus or minus 60-80 ppm/a.m.u., depending on which of the early (isotopically light) or late (isotopically heavy) Pb fraction is lost. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Self potential signals preceding variations of fumarole activity at Merapi volcano, Central Java.

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    International audienceThis paper analyzes simultaneous self-potential and gas temperature variations recorded at Merapi volcano in spring 2001, the dry season shortly after the volcanic crisis 2001. Temporal variations of fumarole gas temperature show characteristic quasi periodic signals at scales 1-8 hours and amplitudes up to ten degrees. We propose a simple graphical technique combining a wavelet scalogram and a cross-correlation analysis to demonstrate that the variations of gas temperature are systematically preceded by self-potential variations at the same scales. The influence of meteorological variations on these correlated signals can be ruled out. Rather, we suggest them to be related to the magma degassing in the upper conduits of the volcano. We discuss a semi-qualitative model to explain this correlation and the observed phase shift of about two hours

    Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

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    International audienceThe anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the ocean, which may reach 950 µatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO2) and decreasing pH ("ocean acidification") are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO2 (380, 850 and 1500 µatm corresponding to pHT of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110mAg, 109Cd, 57Co, 203Hg, 54Mn and 65Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110mAg, 203Hg and 65Zn were affected by the pCO2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO2 enhanced the uptake of both 110mAg and 65Zn while 203Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO2. 65Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO2. Conversely, uptake of 109Cd and 54Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing pCO2. Only the accumulation of 57Co in embryos was not affected by increasing pCO2. In paralarvae, the CF of 110mAg increased with increasing pCO2, whereas the 57Co CF was reduced at the highest pCO2 and 203Hg showed a maximal uptake rate at the intermediate pCO2. 54Mn and 65Zn accumulation in paralarvae were not significantly modified by hypercapnic conditions. Our results suggest a combined effect of pH on the adsorption and protective properties of the eggshell and of hypercapnia on the metabolism of embryo and paralarvae, both causing changes to the accumulation of metals in the tissues of L. vulgaris
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