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    Effect of calf-starter protein solubility on calf performance

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    Three starters containing differently processed protein supplements were fed to Holstein heifer calves, using an early weaning program. One starter contained soybean meal. The other starters contained soybean grits processed through an extrusion cooker to reduce the protein solubility to an intermediate (PDI> 50%) or low (PDI < 15 %) level. Calf performance was similar on all three starters

    The Census of Social Institutions (CSI): a public health direct observation measure of local land use

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    This manuscript describes the development of the Census of Social Institutions (CSI), a reliable direct observation parcel-level built environment measure. The CSI was used to measure all nonresidential parcels (n=10,842) in 21 one-mile-radius neighborhoods centered around census block groups of varying income and ethnicity in a large metropolitan area. One year test-retest intra-class correlations showed high reliability for Major Use Type and Detailcode observations. The CSI accurately captured the presence of about 9,500 uses, including 828 Multiple Major Use and 431 Mixed Major Use parcels that would have been missed in standard commercial databases. CSI data can be utilized to determine the health impacts of environmental settings

    The highlands of contemporary Guatemala

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    Detached from their homeland: the Latter-day Saints of Chihuahua, Mexico

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    Over the past few decades, the homeland concept has received an ever-increasing amount of attention by cultural geographers. While the debate surrounding the necessity and applicability of the concept continues, it is more than apparent that no other geographic term (including culture areas or culture regions) captures the essence of peoples’ attachment to place better than homeland. The literature, however, provides few examples of the deep-seated loyalty people have for a homeland despite being physically detached from that space. Employing land use mapping and informal interviews, this paper seeks to help fill that gap by exemplifying how the daily lives of Mormons living in Chihuahua, Mexico reflect their connection to the United States and the Mormon Homeland. Our research revealed that, among other things, the Anglo residents perpetuate their cultural identity through their unique self-reference, exhibit territoriality links reflected in their built environment, and demonstrate unconditional bonding to their homeland through certain holiday celebrations. It is clear to us, as the Anglo-Mormon experience illustrates, that the homeland concept deserves a place within the geographic lexicon

    The interactive effects of high-fiber diets and Ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights

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    In previous research, feeding pigs high amounts of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) has been shown to reduce carcass yield and negatively affect iodine value (IV). The influence of Ractopamine HCl (RAC; Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on this response is not known; therefore, a total of 575 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050, initially 123 lb) were used in two consecutive 73-d trials to determine the effects of DDGS and midds (high fiber) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets with or without RAC on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design based on initial pen weight. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal–based control diet or diets with 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds. Twelve pens of pigs were fed the corn-soybean meal control diet, and 24 pens were fed the high-fiber diet. During this 49 d period, pigs fed the corn-soybean meal diets had improved (P < 0.0001) ADG and F/G compared with those fed the high-fiber diets. On d 49, pens of pigs were re-allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments; pigs remained on the corn-soybean meal diets, switched from the high-fiber diet to corn-soybean meal (withdrawal diet), or were maintained on the high-fiber diet. These 3 regimens were fed with or without 9 g/ton RAC

    Calf health and performance during receiving is not changed by fence-line preconditioning on flint hills range vs. drylot preconditioning

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    Ranch-of-origin preconditioning can improve the welfare and performance of beef calves by decreasing the stress associated with weaning, transport, diet change, and commingling with other calves. Preconditioning methods that involve pasture weaning coupled with maternal contact (i.e., fence-line weaning) have been promoted as possible best management practices for minimizing stress. Prior studies focused on performance and behavior during preconditioning on the ranch of origin. Little information has been published relating to carryover effects of fence-line preconditioning compared with conventional drylot preconditioning on performance and behavior during feedlot receiving. Our objectives were to measure growth and health during a 28-day ranch-of-origin preconditioning phase and during a 60-day feedlot receiving phase among beef calves subjected to 1 of 3 ranch-of-origin preconditioning programs: (1) drylot preconditioning + dam separation, (2) pasture preconditioning + fence-line contact with dams, and (3) pasture preconditioning + fence-line contact with dams + supplemental feed delivered in a bunk. In addition, we recorded incidences of behavioral distress among these treatments during first 7 days of feedlot receiving

    Effects of infrequent dried distillers grain supplementation on spring-calving cow performance

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    Feed and supplement costs and the expenses associated with delivery of winter supplements account for a large proportion of the total operating expenditures for cow-calf producers. Cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range (<6% crude protein) typically are unable to consume sufficient protein from the forage base, which limits microbial activity and forage digestion. Supplemental protein often is required to maintain cow body weight and body condition score during the last trimester of pregnancy. Low cow body condition scores at calving are common and may negatively affect lactation, rebreeding rates, and calf weaning weight. Failure to maintain proper nutritional status during this period severely affects short-term cow performance, reduces overall herd productivity, and limits profit potential. The most effective means of supplying supplemental protein to cows consuming dormant native range is to provide a small amount of high-protein feedstuff (>30% crude protein). Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol refining process. Distillers grains supply the recommended 30% crude protein level, are readily available, and often are favorably priced compared with more traditional feedstuffs. With the rising costs of inputs in today’s cow-calf sector, reducing cost is necessary to maintain viability of the national cowherd. Reducing the frequency of supplementation results in less labor and fuel use, effectively reducing input costs; however, this is viable only as long as cow performance is maintained at acceptable levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of infrequent supplementation of dried distillers grains with solubles on cow body weight and body condition score

    Presynchronizing PGF2α and GnRH injections before timed artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program

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    Fixed-time artificial insemination is an effective management tool that reduces the labor associated with more conventional artificial insemination programs requiring detection of estrus. The 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert protocol has been shown to effectively initiate estrus and ovulation in cycling and non-cycling suckled beef cows, producing pregnancy rates at or greater than 50% in beef cows. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection that begins the CO-Synch + CIDR program initiates ovulation in a large proportion of cows, particularly anestrous cows. The CIDR, which releases progesterone intravaginally, prevents short estrous cycles that usually follow the first postpartum ovulation in beef cows. Our hypothesis was that inducing estrus with a prostaglandin injection followed 3 days later with a GnRH injection, 7 days before applying the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, might increase the percentage of cycling cows that would exhibit synchronous follicular waves after the onset of the CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. We also hypothesized that the additional GnRH injection would increase the percentage of anestrous cows that would ovulate, thereby increasing pregnancy outcomes

    Audits and inspections are never enough: a critique to enhance food safety

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    Internal and external food safety audits are conducted to assess the safety and quality of food including on-farm production, manufacturing practices, sanitation, and hygiene. Some auditors are direct stakeholders that are employed by food establishments to conduct internal audits, while other auditors may represent the interests of a second party purchaser or a third-party auditing agency. Some buyers conduct their own audits or additional testing, while some buyers trust the results of third-party audits or inspections. Third-party auditors, however, use various food safety audit standards and most do not have a vested interest in the products being sold. Audits are conducted under a proprietary standard, while food safety inspections are generally conducted within a legal framework. There have been many foodborne illness outbreaks linked to food processors that have passed third-party audits and inspections, raising questions about the utility of both. Supporters argue third-party audits are a way to ensure food safety in an era of dwindling economic resources. Critics contend that while external audits and inspections can be a valuable tool to help ensure safe food, such activities represent only a snapshot in time. This paper identifies limitations of food safety inspections and audits and provides recommendations for strengthening the system, based on developing a strong food safety culture, including risk-based verification steps, throughout the food safety system

    Bilingual, digital, audio-visual training modules improve technical knowledge of feedlot and dairy workers

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    Two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of digital multimedia modules as training tools for animal care workers. Employees at a commercial feedlot (n = 17) and a commercial dairy (n = 10) were asked to independently complete a 10-question quiz prior to and following viewing of training modules. Module topics in the feedlot were proper handling of non-ambulatory animals and humane methods of euthanasia; modules were administered to the workers, as a group, in either English (n = 7) or Spanish (N = 10), depending on previously indicated worker preference. Modules addressing dairy cattle health practices and dairy cattle handling were presented to the dairy care workers who had a preference for learning in either English (n = 7) or Spanish (n = 3). For feedlot workers, post-test scores were improved by 28% after viewing the modules compared to pre-test scores (74% vs. 58%; P 0.30) between language, topic, and between-test variation, indicating that the modules were equally effective at information delivery to both audiences in both languages. For the dairy workers, test scores improved by 27% from pre-viewing to post-viewing (73% vs. 92%; P < 0.01); there was an interaction between the effect of module and language preference (P < 0.01) indicating that although scores increased for both of the topic areas for the English-speaking workers, only the score for the animal health topic increased for the Spanish-speaking workers. Regardless of nationality, level of formal education, topic, or preferred language, digital media are effective at improving knowledge transfer to animal care professionals


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