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    Μέν in the Roman and Byzantine papyri : syntax, semantics and pragmatics

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    In the first part of this article, I discuss the syntax and semantics of the particle μέν in the Roman and Byzantine papyri (I-VI AD). As previous studies have shown, μέν went ouf of use early on in the Post-classical period. However, the particle is not entirely absent in the documentary papyri: this especially concerns ‘co-ordinate’ μέν, but examples of ‘solitary’ μέν can also be found. In the second part, I go into the pragmatics of this particle, discussing the social context in which μέν was used. For this purpose, I turn to Systemic Functional theory, which provides an integrated socio-linguistic framework (Hasan 2009)

    ‘How dare you!’ : a conceptualization of the eco-shaming discourse in Belgium

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    The rise of Greta Thunberg, the Swedish ‘flygskam’ (flight shame) movement, and school strikes for climate: the context for apprehending environmental affairs changed significantly in 2018, enabling the construction of a new environmental discourse of which practices of eco-shaming and emotions of eco-shame are visible expressions. This paper conceptualizes this ‘eco-shaming’ discourse by exposing the complex set of constituents underpinning it. It demonstrates how the eco-shaming discourse embodies a conception of the environment as public good and how it relies on the idea of shared but differentiated responsibilities in caring for the environment. As such, the paper adds the eco-shaming discourse as an eleventh environmental discourse to the ones famously identified in The Politics of the Earth. The paper then compares the eco-shaming discourse with other environmental discourses and discusses its implications for environmental politics. The paper draws upon a specific methodological application of discourse analysis that gives emotion a place it usually lacks in environmental discourse analysis. The empirical analysis includes text documents (n = 2155) from three societal domains (media, policy, and advocacy) in Belgium. This paper contributes theoretical and empirical knowledge on eco-shaming, environmental discourses, policymaking, as well as methodological insights on how to acquire such knowledge

    Histone deacetylases regulate MORE AXILLARY BRANCHED 2-dependent germination of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Under specific conditions, the germination of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent on the activation of the KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) signalling pathway by the KAI2-dependent perception of karrikin (KAR) or the artificial strigolactone analogue rac-GR24. To regulate induction of germination, the KAI2 signalling pathway relies on MORE AXILLARY BRANCHED 2 (MAX2)-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the repressor protein SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1). It is not yet known how degradation of SMAX1 proteins eventually results in the regulation of seed germination, but it has been hypothesized that SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) generally function as transcriptional repressors through the recruitment of co-repressors TOPLESS (TPL) and TPL-related, which in turn interact with histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we show the involvement of histone deacetylases HDA6, HDA9, HDA19, and HDT1 in MAX2-dependent germination of Arabidopsis, and more specifically, that HDA6 is required for the induction of DLK2 expression in response to rac-GR24 treatment

    Pushing forward the transition to a circular economy by adopting an actor engagement lens

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    Circular business models (CBMs), such as product-service systems, are rapidly gaining traction in light of a transition to a more circular and sustainable economy. The authors call for a new approach to inform and guide the development and adoption of these CBMs. The main reason is that different actors in the service ecosystems or networks linked to these business models—such as firms, customers, and governmental bodies—may be reluctant to join or even impede the transition to a circular economy. Based upon an abductive analysis of 133 CBM papers with the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) framework as organizing structure, the authors theorize about how to achieve “circular economy engagement” ( i.e., an actor’s disposition to embrace CBMs). Specifically, they highlight and illustrate the role of (1) signaling and convincing as motivation-related practices, (2) matching and legitimizing as opportunity-related practices, and (3) supporting and empowering as ability-related practices. The authors provide illustrative cases for each of these practices along with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications and the remaining challenges—all with the key aim to push the transition to a circular economy forward

    Midterm change in rainfall distribution in north and central Benin : implications for agricultural decision making

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    A better understanding of rainfall variability and trends is vital for agricultural production systems which are largely dependent on climate. This study aims to analyze and to quantify the significance of change on annual, seasonal and daily rainfall in North and Central Benin, and to infer future challenges for crop production. Daily rainfall data for the 1970-2016 period measured at three weather stations (Save, Malanville and Tanguieta) were obtained from the Benin National Weather Agency. Descriptive statistics, standardized anomaly of rainfall (SAR) and rainfall intensity were used to analyze rainfall variability. For rainfall trends analysis, we tested for auto-correlation and used the Mann-Kendall and modified Mann-Kendall tests for non-auto-correlated and auto-correlated data, respectively. Trend magnitude was estimated using Sen's slope. Globally, a moderate-to-high seasonal rainfall and low variability of yearly rainfall were observed. The SAR indicated more than 50% of the years in the studies period experienced dry years. Between 1970 and 2016, a significant 20% increase was observed in the yearly rainfall in Tanguieta, whereas no significant trends were observed in Malanville (10% increase) and Save (0.6% decrease). The general rainfall increase observed during the post-monsoon season (October-November) in the three weather stations potentially increases flood frequencies during the harvest period of some crops, which can reduce crop yields. Adaptation strategies are needed which can mitigate the effects of climate change on agriculture. These findings are essential to the climate risk management in agriculture and to target appropriate adaptive measures for resilience building in the sector

    Forest understorey flowering phenology responses to experimental warming and illumination

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    Species are altering their phenology to track warming temperatures. In forests, understorey plants experience tree canopy shading resulting in light and temperature conditions, which strongly deviate from open habitats. Yet, little is known about understorey phenology responses to forest microclimates. We recorded flowering onset, peak, end and duration of 10 temperate forest understorey plant species in two mesocosm experiments to understand how phenology is affected by sub-canopy warming and how this response is modulated by illumination, which is related to canopy change. Furthermore, we investigated whether phenological sensitivities can be explained by species' characteristics, such as thermal niche. We found a mean advance of flowering onset of 7.1 d per 1°C warming, more than previously reported in studies not accounting for microclimatic buffering. Warm-adapted species exhibited greater advances. Temperature sensitivity did not differ between early- and later-flowering species. Experimental illumination did not significantly affect species' phenological temperature sensitivities, but slightly delayed flowering phenology independent from warming. Our study suggests that integrating sub-canopy temperature and light availability will help us better understand future understorey phenology responses. Climate warming together with intensifying canopy disturbances will continue to drive phenological shifts and potentially disrupt understorey communities, thereby affecting forest biodiversity and functioning

    Genetic approaches to improve lignocellulosic biomass yield and processing efficiency in Arabidopsis and poplar

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