Ghent University Academic Bibliography

    Compensatory measures in European nature conservation law

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    Yang Liangyao's Mission of 785 to the Caliph of Baġdād: evidence of an early Sino-Arabic power alliance?

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    The primary focus of this article is the information provided in a tomb stele (shendao zhi bei 神道之碑) of a Chinese eunuch, a certain Yang Liangyao 楊良瑤 (736–806), that will be comparatively analysed against the background of the political landscape under the Chinese Emperor Dezong 德宗 (Li Gua 李适; 742–805; r. 780–805), and more specifically against the backdrop of the court’s politics in the face of Tibetan aggression. The stele inscription records the biography of Yang and claims that he was sent as an envoy to the Abbasids (Heiyi dashi 黑衣大食; lit. “Black-dressed Tajik”, i.e. the Arabs) by Emperor Dezong in 785. It seems that the mission was intended to ask the Arabs for military support against the Tibetans. The article intends to complement preliminary work done on Yang’s mission by framing it within a broader context and by analysing the factors that may have prompted this trip. In particular, we want to address the question of why such an important diplomatic mission is neither mentioned in any other sources, and the question of why it has never been brought up in academic discourse. Although a clear indication that this trip even took place at all is absent in both Chinese and Middle Eastern historiography, there is no plausible reason to automatically rule out the possibility that the mission was carried out, or to assume that somebody might have faked such a story on an epigraphic document like this tomb stele. Historical circumstances and a comparison with information provided in other sources rather suggest that the mission was sent, perhaps even successfully, and there are also quite a few political reasons as to why the mission and information pertaining to Yang Liangyao himself were not included in the official accounts. The article will argue that particular historical circumstances suggest that his mission was very plausible; and that the decision to send him to the Abbasid caliphate to ask the Arabs for assistance in pushing back the Tibetans was at least in line with Emperor Dezong’s foreign policy strategy. We will also discuss questions connected with the possible identity of Yang Liangyao, something so far neglected in research. Résumé Cet article est centré sur la stèle funéraire (shendao zhi bei 神道之碑) de l’eunuque Yang Liangyao楊良瑤 (736–806), laquelle sera analysée en tenant compte du contexte politique durant le règne de l’empereur Dezong德宗 (Li Gua 李适; 742–805; r. 780–805), et plus particulièrement des mesures prises par la cour face à l’agression tibétaine. La stèle funéraire relate la biographie de Yang et rapporte qu’en 785 il a été envoyé par l’empereur en ambassadeur à la cour des Abbasides (Heiyi dashi 黑衣大食; lit. “les Tajik vêtus de noir”, c’est-à-dire les Arabes). Il semble que la mission ait eu comme objectif de demander le soutien de cette dernière contre les Tibétains. La présente étude se propose de compléter le travail déjà fait sur cette ambassade en l’introduisant dans un contexte plus large et en analysant les facteurs qui ont pu être à son origine. En particulier, nous nous posons la question de savoir pourquoi une mission aussi importante n’est rapportée dans aucune autre source et pourquoi ce n’est que tout récemment qu’elle a fait l’objet de recherches. Bien que cette mission ne soit pas attestée par l’historiographie tant chinoise que moyen-orientale, il n’y a aucune raison d’exclure son éventualité, ou encore de supposer que le document épigraphique a pu être falsifié. Le contexte historique et l’analyse d’autres documents suggèrent plutôt qu’elle a bien été envoyée et peut-être même avec succès; en outre, le fait qu’elle ait été passée sous silence dans l’histoire officielle peut aussi s’expliquer par différentes raisons politiques. Nous analyserons ici les circonstances historiques qui laissent penser que l’existence de cette ambassade est très plausible; la décision d’envoyer Yang Liangyao à la cour des Abbasides est, au moins, absolument en ligne avec la politique extérieure de l’empereur Dezong. Cette étude aborde aussi la question de l’identité probable de Yang Liangyao, négligée jusqu’ici par les chercheurs. 摘要 本文主要研究一个名为杨良瑶(736–806)的中国宦官的神道碑铭文中所记载的信息。本文将碑文中的信息置于唐德宗李适时期的政治形势背景下(尤其是受到吐蕃军事威胁时的宫廷政治),做了校勘分析。神道碑铭文记载了杨良瑶的生平,并称其在785年作为使节被德宗遣往黑衣大食。这次出使任务似乎是为了向阿拉伯人请求军事援助以对付吐蕃人。 本文的研究分析旨在对现有关于此次出使大食的研究作出补充。本文将此次出使放置在一个更广阔的背景之中,并且对那些可能促使这次出使的因素作出分析。尤其是,我们希望回答一个问题:为什么这样一次重要的外交出使既没有在其他史料中留下记录,也没有在以前的学术叙事中被提及?尽管在中文以及中东史料中能明确证明这次出使是否真实的材料付之阙如,但也没有一个合理可信的理由可以断然排除存在这次出使的可能性,或者可以明确质疑是有人伪造了神道碑及其铭文。历史环境以及与其他文献中的信息相校勘,反而暗示了这个使团的确是被派遣了出去,也许甚至是成功的,并且有很多政治理由可以解释为什么这次出访,以及杨良瑶的生平没有被载入官方史录。至少就当时的历史环境而言,他的出使是非常可能的。我们认为,决定派遣杨良瑶出使阿拔斯王朝,求得阿拉伯人的援助以逼退吐蕃人,也非常符合德宗皇帝的外交战略

    Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at √s=13TeV

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    The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2) using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudorapidities (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5), the charged-hadron multiplicity density is dN(ch)/d eta vertical bar(vertical bar eta vertical bar) < 0.5= 5.49 +/- 0.01 (stat) +/- 0.17 (syst), a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energies

    Stabilization of nonclassical states of one- and two-mode radiation fields by reservoir engineering

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    We analyze a quantum reservoir engineering method, originally introduced by Sarlette et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 010402 (2011)], for the stabilization of nonclassical field states in high-quality cavities. We generalize the method to the protection of mesoscopic entangled field states shared by two nondegenerate field modes. The reservoir consists of a stream of atoms consecutively interacting with the cavity. Each individual atom-cavity interaction follows the same time-varying Hamiltonian, combining resonant with nonresonant parts. We gain detailed insight into the competition between the engineered reservoir and decoherence. We show that the operation is quite insensitive to experimental imperfections and that it could thus be implemented in the near future in the context of microwave cavity or circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Off-body wireless link simulation framework using deterministic channel modeling

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    Body-centric communication concerns wireless links in which the human body represents the central element, exchanging data by means of wearable antennas with a different node in the external environment or on the human body itself. During the link design phase, it is very advantageous to be able to model the link and predict its performance before its real implementation, resulting in reduction of design time and costs. In the present contribution, we propose a novel computer simulation framework to describe a complete off-body communication link between a human user and a remote base station, including all the components of the communication link such as wearable and fixed antennas, human body and propagation channel at the physical level, also taking into account the digital data transmission at link level. The proposed framework was constructed by applying the most appropriate modeling tools for each component, including ray tracing for the deterministic channel modeling. The framework provides as output the most common link performance parameters such as Bit-Error-Rate (BER), received Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and channel correlations. The validity of the proposed method was verified by comparing the figures of merit of a real off-body communication link, studied during a previous measurement campaign, with the ones obtained by the proposed simulation framework. A good agreement is obtained in terms of both BERs and SNRs

    From commission to Union delegations: a legal-institutionalist analysis

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    Silicon photonic accurate wavelength detection using an AWG and time-domain multiplexing

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    We present a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) compact wavelength detector. An AWG in Vernier configuration is used as wavelength selective device and thermo-optic MZ modulators perform time-domain multiplexing on the inputs. The measured average accuracy is 180 pm

    Mining and visualizing usage of educational systems using linked data

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    This work introduces a case study on usage of semantic context modelling and creation of Linked Data from logs in educational systems like a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) with focus on improvements and monitoring such systems, in generally, with respect to social, functional, user and activity centric level [7,15]. The case study demonstrates the application of semantic modelling of the activity context, from data collected over two years from the PLE at Graz University of Technology, using adequate domain ontologies, semantic technologies and visualization as reflection for potential technical and functional improvements. As it will be shown, this approach offers easy interfacing and extensibility on technological level and fast insight on statistical and preference trends for analytic tasks

    Robust methods for predicting the transition states of chemical reactions: new approaches that focus on key coordinates

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    A new method for optimizing transition state and minima structures using redundant internal coordinates is presented. The new method is innovative because it allows the user to select a few key reduced coordinates, whose Hessian components will be accurately computed by finite differencing; the remaining elements of the Hessian are approximated with a quasi-Newton method. Usually the reduced coordinates are the coordinates that are involved in bond breaking/forming. In order to develop this method, several other innovations were made, including ways to (a) select the key reduced coordinates automatically, (b) guess the transition state quickly and efficiently, (c) choose dihedrals so that the “linear angle problem” is avoided, (d) robustly convert redundant internal coordinates to Cartesian coordinates. These, and other technical developments (e.g., new quasi-Newton Hessians, new trust-radius updates), were validated using a database of 7000 initial transition-state guesses for a diverse set of 140 chemical reactions
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