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    255377 research outputs found

    Colossal Trajectory Mining: A unifying approach to mine behavioral mobility patterns

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    Spatio-temporal mobility patterns are at the core of strategic applications such as urban planning and monitoring. Depending on the strength of spatio-temporal constraints, different mobility patterns can be defined. While existing approaches work well in the extraction of groups of objects sharing fine-grained paths, the huge volume of large-scale data asks for coarse-grained solutions. In this paper, we introduce Colossal Trajectory Mining (CTM) to efficiently extract heterogeneous mobility patterns out of a multidimensional space that, along with space and time dimensions, can consider additional trajectory features (e.g., means of transport or activity) to characterize behavioral mobility patterns. The algorithm is natively designed in a distributed fashion, and the experimental evaluation shows its scalability with respect to the involved features and the cardinality of the trajectory dataset

    Structurally compromised teeth. Part II: A novel approach to peripheral build up procedures

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    ObjectiveTo introduce the "Peripheral Build-Up technique - PBUt" as a foundation restoration strategy for structurally compromised teeth (SCT). Clinical ConsiderationsSeveral strategies have been proposed over time (cervical marginal relocation, doughnut, and preformed ring techniques) to enable the management of restorative procedures in challenging situations such as the presence of deep subgingival defects. The PBUt is a versatile, completely additive direct technique that share some strategical concepts with these techniques to approach critical clinical situations while supplying a wider field of application thanks to distinct operative expedients. The clamp insertion modality, the extension of the proximal wall and the matrix customization/stabilization strategies adopted in PBUt endorse the possibility to manage the most apical and peripheral border of the residual tooth structure when located up to >1.5 mm above the bone crest. The periodontal response has to be then monitored over time. Moreover, thanks to the peripheral and apically-extended addictive approach, it allows a massive preservation of residual sound tooth structure and improves the resistance and retentive physical/geometrical features of the abutment tooth. The PBUt operative workflow is herein explained. Clinical SignificanceThe Peripheral-Build-Up technique (PBUt) advocates some innovative clinical restorative steps for the management of SCT with coronal and deep subgingival defects

    Global antimicrobial use in livestock farming: an estimate for cattle, chickens, and pigs

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    Livestock farming substantially contributes to the global economy and food security. However, it poses crucial environmental, animal welfare, and public health challenges. The main objective of this study is to quantify the global antimicrobial use (AMU) in cattle, chicken, and pig farming. This information is important for understanding the potential impact of farm AMU on the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance among animals and humans. Using the United States Department of Agriculture Production, Supply, and Distribution and the Food and Agriculture Organization databases, we estimated the total supply of cattle (in heads) and its distribution into four weight categories: calves (26%), cows (41%), heifers (4%), and bulls of more than one year (29%). Similarly, we calculated the total supply of pigs (in heads) and divided it into two weight categories: pigs (96%) and sows (4%). For chickens, we considered one weight category. We attributed to each category a standard weight according to the parameters set by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to determine the animal biomass at risk of antimicrobial treatment, or population correction unit (PCU). Finally, we estimated the global PCUs and then the global AMU based on the average administered to the three species (in mg of active ingredients per kg PCU). With this method, we estimated a global annual AMU of 76 060 tonnes of antimicrobial active ingredients (2019-2021 average), of which 40 697 tonnes (or 53.5%) for cattle, 4 243 tonnes (or 5.6%) for chickens, and 31 120 tonnes (or 40.9%) for pigs. According to our assessment, global AMU leads to almost 20 000 tonnes less than the previous estimates due to a different evaluation of PCUs. In previous studies, PCUs were calculated on the liveweight at slaughtering of animals, while our method considers the age and sex of animals and their average weight at treatment. Our results are consistent with the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) estimate of 76 704 tonnes of veterinary antimicrobials globally consumed in 2018 for the total of food-producing animals (the WOAH estimation is based on sales and import data)

    Lā€™eterno ritorno dellā€™uguale? La poligamia nello spazio giuridico contemporaneo. Tra identitĆ  religiosa e (nuove) istanze di legittimazione

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    In diversi Stati a maggioranza islamica il precetto coranico che consente lā€™unione poliginica ĆØ stato distillato allā€™interno delle varie codificazioni relative allo statuto personale: il vincolo poligamico ĆØ divenuto cosƬ una delle modalitĆ  consentite per lā€™istituzionalizzazione di un legame affettivo. Tale scelta, se rappresenta una possibilitĆ  del tutto lecita in tali contesti, alle nostre latitudini si scontra con una tradizione giuridica e un tessuto socioculturale che invece attribuiscono un intrinseco disvalore allā€™unione poligamica. Questo rilievo, perĆ², convive con un incontestabile dato di realtĆ : a seguito dei fenomeni migratori che hanno coinvolto il nostro Paese sono sempre piĆ¹ numerose le famiglie poligamiche de facto e in aggiunta non sono rari i casi in cui il poligamo chieda il ricongiungimento familiare di diverse consorti. Il saggio intende indagare il fenomeno sotto un triplice aspetto: il profilo religioso dellā€™istituto e i suoi riflessi in alcuni Paesi a maggioranza islamica; la reazione dellā€™ordinamento italiano alla diffusione della poligamia; il dibattito dottrinale e la discussione giurisprudenziale sul tema, segnatamente in Italia e Spagna. Il saggio si conclude sottolineando le similitudini tra il poliamore e la poligamia, rimarcando quali potrebbero essere le possibili conseguenze nel riconoscere giuridicamente il primo ma non la seconda

    Connecting catch profiles with efficiency: An application to the beam trawl fishery in the Northern Adriatic Sea

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    Estimation of technical efficiency in fisheries is most commonly finalized at comparing the conversion from inputs (e.g. time at sea, fuel consumption) to production (i.e. landed fish) among vessels or gears. In this paper we adopt a novel approach focusing on the efficiency of fishing trips characterized by different catch composition within the same fleet. In particular, the case study under analysis is represented by the beam trawl (ā€œrapidoā€) fishery of Chioggia (Adriatic Sea, GSA 17), which has been subject to increasing technical and effort limitations in recent years due to its severe impacts on the marine ecosystem. The methodological strategy first involves a cluster analysis of catch profiles to identify homogeneous groups of fishing trips, which are subsequently compared in terms of economic performance based on the efficiency scores from stochastic frontier analysis. By including also an estimation of Greenhouse Gas emissions per trip, the results from our study can be used to inform future management interventions that aim at improving the overall efficiency of the fishery while reducing its carbon footprint and the pressure on the most relevant target species

    Rayleighā€“BĆ©nard type PCM melting and solid drops

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    In this paper we document both theoretically and numerically the melting of PCM in an enclosure heated from the bottom, in the presence of vertical metallic fins. We start with the analysis of the PCM melting in the absence of fins to discover the main scales of the problem, stressing the occurrence of Rayleigh-BĆ©nard cells generated during the convection regime of melting. We continue with predicting the impact of fins on the development of the melting interface. The numerical experiments allow to understand the impact of the aspect ratio between the height of the enclosure and the distance between fins on the melting dynamics. They highlight the existence of solid drops for a certain range of aspect ratios when the horizontal flow channels in the convective loops along the fins become in contact, and they show how the solid drop is dragged downward to finish melting on the heated bottom of the enclosure

    Short- and long-term effects of essential oils on swine spermatozoa during liquid phase refrigeration

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    The application of essential oils as potential alternatives to antibiotics in swine semen storage is promising, due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. However, detrimental effects on spermatozoa should be clarified first. The aim of this study was to evaluate 9 essential oils (EOs; Satureja montana, Pelargonium graveolens, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendron, Eucaliptus globulus, Citrus limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula hybrida, Mentha piperita) and a blend (GL mix) on key morpho-functional parameters of swine spermatozoa. Test compounds were firstly chemo-characterized and experimental doses were prepared by suspending a fixed number of spermatozoa with 3 different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/mL) of EOs. Experimental doses were stored at 16 Ā°C and sampled after 3 and 120 h for analysis. Overall, S. montana, P. graveolens and L. angustifolia EOs induced the strongest alterations, with C. nardus and E. globulus EOs being the best tolerated. Swine spermatozoa represent a good preliminary testing platform to screen toxicity and its different patterns. The comprehensive overview on the potential mechanisms of action of some of the most common EOs, despite of the direct aim of the study being swine reproduction, may be exploited in other fields of research within both veterinary and human medicine

    Effect of plasma-activated water (PAW) soaking on the lipid oxidation of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets

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    The efficacy of plasma-activated water (PAW) as a chemical-free and environmentally friendly preservative has been documented for a variety of foods, but the onset of lipid oxidation induced by plasma-reactive species has been less extensively studied. In this work, global indices (peroxide value, UV specific absorbance) and direct analytical determinations of volatile and non-volatile oxidation products were performed on sardine lipids extracted from fish fillets immersed in PAW (treatments) and distilled water (controls) for 10-30 min. Evidence of PAW-induced lipid oxidation was provided by higher UV specific absorbances and higher levels of C5-C9 secondary volatile oxidation products in the treated samples. However, the degree of fatty acid oxidation was not sufficient to cause a significant reduction in nutritionally valuable eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twelve cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were identified in the sardine lipids, but no significant differences in total COPs content were found between PAW processed and control samples

    The fate of bacteria in urban wastewater-irrigated peach tree: a seasonal evaluation from soil to canopy

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    Irrigation with wastewater can be a solution to preserve and mitigate freshwater demand, in particular during drought periods. Unfortunately, wastewater, although being treated at different levels, could be a carrier of human pathogens (e.g., E. coli) and potentially contaminate crops for human consumptions.This study investigated the seasonal microbiological concentrations, on soil, shoot and fruit tissues of potted peach trees, following two irrigation treatments: freshwater (FW) and secondary urban wastewater without the final disinfection treatment (SW). E. coli was only detected in SW irrigated soil, whereas total coliforms (TC) and total bacteria counts (TBC) were similar in both treatments throughout the season. EndophyticE. coli, Salmonella spp. and TC were not detected in shoot and fruit, but a higher presence of total bacteria (TBC) was observed in SW-irrigated tree compared to FWirrigated tree. In particular, SW shoots had a higher load compared to fruits, thus showing a potential effect of leaf transpiration, that promoted the transfer of water-borne bacteria from soil to the epigeal part (shoot). The adoption of low-quality SW (even above the microbiological limits of the European Regulation 2020/741 for wastewater re-use in agriculture), when a drip irrigation method is applied, could be a valid alternative to save fresh water without compromising fruit safety

    Corrosion of aircraft heritage: a comparison between modern and historic Duralumin alloys

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    The development of innovative solutions for the conservation and the protection of historic aircraft is a recent and important issue raised in the cultural heritage field and represents the goal of the PROCRAFT Protection and Conservation of Heritage Aircraft) project. Assessing and documenting the constituent materials as well as their degradation state is necessary to determine and understand factors inducing aluminium alloy corrosion, in order to develop tailored conservation treatments and identify effective protective coatings. The first step of the project was the identification of the constituent materials of aircraft wrecks. Al-Cu-Mg alloysā€”Duralumin and Super Duralumin, with a higher content of Mgā€”were the most employed alloys for structural and non-structural parts. These materials undergo a wide range of alterations, amongst which pitting, exfoliation and galvanic corrosion. In the present work, results of the characterisation of wrecks from a North American Republic P-47D Thunderbolt, crashed in Italy in 1945, are reported and compared to wrecks from a French Breguet 765 Sahara nĀ°504 64-PH, built in 1958. The constituent alloys resulted to be similar to the modern 2024 and 2017A alloy. In order to assess the representativeness of these modern alloys in simulating the corrosion behaviour of the historic ones, exfoliation susceptibility (ASTM G34) as well as non-destructive and destructive electrochemical tests in 0.1 M NaCl were carried out on both historic and modern alloys. These results contributed to the selection of representative substrates for the development of protective coatings as well as to the expansion of the dataset on composition and microstructure of historic Al alloys for aircraft


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