2,488 research outputs found

    Assembly of the Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules

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    This note describes the organization of the mechanical assembly of the nearly 4000 silicon microstrip modules that were constructed in Italy for the Inner Tracker of the CMS experiment. The customization and the calibration of the robotic system adopted by the CMS Tracker community, starting from a general pilot project realized at CERN, is described. The step-by-step assembly procedure is illustrated in detail. Finally, the results for the mechanical precision of all assembled modules are reported

    The 2003 Tracker Inner Barrel Beam Test

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    Before starting the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) mass production, where the quality control tests can only be done on single components, an extensive collection of activities aiming at validating the tracker system functionality has been performed. In this framework, a final component prototype of the Inner Barrel part (TIB) of the SST has been assembled and tested in the INFN laboratories and then moved to CERN to check its behaviour in a 25~ns LHC-like particle beam. A set of preproduction single-sided silicon microstrip modules was mounted on a mechanical structure very similar to a sector of the third layer of the TIB and read out using a system functionally identical to the final one. In this note the system setup configuration is fully described and the results of the test, concerning both detector performance and system characteristics, are presented and discussed

    Study of radiation damage and substrate resistivity effects from beam test of silicon microstrip detectors using LHC readout electronics

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    We present the beam test results of single-sided silicon microstrip detectors, with different substrate resistivities. The effects of radiation damage are studied for a detector irradiated to a fluence of 2.4 multiplied by 10**1**4 n/cm**2. The detectors are read out with the APV6 chip, which is compatible with the 40 MHz LHC clock. The performance of different detectors and readout modes are studied in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency

    Long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling: purinoceptors control cell proliferation, differentiation and death

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    The purinergic signalling system, which uses purines and pyrimidines as chemical transmitters, and purinoceptors as effectors, is deeply rooted in evolution and development and is a pivotal factor in cell communication. The ATP and its derivatives function as a 'danger signal' in the most primitive forms of life. Purinoceptors are extraordinarily widely distributed in all cell types and tissues and they are involved in the regulation of an even more extraordinary number of biological processes. In addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion, there is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body. In this article, we focus on the latter in the immune/defence system, in stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption, as well as in cancer. Cell Death and Disease (2010) 1, e9; doi:10.1038/cddis.2009.11; published online 14 January 201

    A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci.

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    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1: rs1014971, (P = 8 × 10⁻¹²) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1, rs8102137 (P = 2 × 10⁻¹¹) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1 and rs11892031 (P = 1 × 10⁻⁷) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previously identified genome-wide associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹), and found interactions with smoking in both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis

    Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV

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    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-kt algorithm with distance parameters R=0. 4 or R=0. 6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta pT≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities {pipe}η{pipe}<4. 5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2. 5 % in the central calorimeter region ({pipe}η{pipe}<0. 8) for jets with 60≤pT<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for pT<30 GeV in the most forward region 3. 2≤{pipe}η{pipe}<4. 5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon pT, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low-pT jets recoiling against a high-pT jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high-pT jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced content of jets originating from light quarks, heavy quarks or gluons are also discussed and the corresponding uncertainties are determined. © 2013 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration

    Measurement of the inclusive and dijet cross-sections of b-jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector