The Velocity Field Underneath a Breaking Rogue Wave: Laboratory Experiments Versus Numerical Simulations
Wave breaking is the most characteristic feature of the ocean surface. Physical investigations (in the field and at laboratory scale) and numerical simulations have studied the driving mechanisms that lead to wave breaking and its effects on hydrodynamic loads on marine structures. Despite computational advances, accurate numerical simulations of the complex breaking process remain challenging. Validation of numerical codes is routinely performed against experimental observations of the surface elevation. However, it is still uncertain whether simulations can accurately reproduce the velocity field under breaking waves due to the lack of ad-hoc measurements. In the present work, the velocity field recorded with a Particle Image Velocimetry method during experiments conducted in a unidirectional wave tank is directly compared to the results of a corresponding numerical simulation performed with a Navier–Stokes (NS) solver. It is found that simulations underpredict the velocity close to the wave crest compared to measurements. Higher resolutions seem necessary in order to capture the most relevant details of the flow
This article responds to the recent and rapid rise in the practice, within contemporary theatre-making, of creating new performance work for adult audiences featuring children as performers and collaborators. Within this work there is a tension between the desire for a representation of the authentic voice and lived experience of the child performer and the poetic function of the performance. This question of the place of authenticity in work dogs much performance work created by professional artists with children for adult audiences and can shape the way artists approach the rehearsal process with child performers. I examine the creative and aesthetic strategies of creating work with child performers, and consider the pedagogical frames of actor practice that underpin this process, asking what an ethical dramaturgy for contemporary performance with children for adult audiences might look like
Conditional Cash Transfers: Do They Result in More Patient Choices and Increased Educational Aspirations?
Conditional cash transfers aim to increase human capital in poorer families. They do this directly through conditions but may also influence household decision making in other ways. Using a regression discontinuity design, we test whether a large conditional cash transfer program affects discounting choices and aspirations for children’s education. A greater willingness to defer consumption and desire to invest in education may result from habits formed during the program, information received, and/or by the relaxation of the budget constraint. We however find no evidence of such impacts, which limits the long-term impacts of such programs if the transfers were to cease
Gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis requires the action of multiple pathways. There is some controversy regarding whether small intestine (SI) Paneth cells (PCs) play a central role in orchestrating crypt architecture and their relationship with Lgr5+ve stem cells. Nevertheless, we previously showed that germline CSF-1 receptor (Csf1r) knock out (KO) or Csf1 mutation is associated with an absence of mature PC, reduced crypt proliferation and lowered stem cell gene, Lgr5 expression. Here we show the additional loss of CD24, Bmi1 and Olfm4 expression in the KO crypts and a high resolution 3D localization of CSF-1R mainly to PC. The induction of GI-specific Csf1r deletion in young adult mice also led to PC loss over a period of weeks, in accord with the anticipated long life span of PC, changed distribution of proliferating cells and this was with a commensurate loss of Lgr5 and other stem cell marker gene expression. By culturing SI organoids, we further show that the Csf1r(-/-) defect in PC production is intrinsic to epithelial cells as well as definitively affecting stem cell activity. These results show that CSF-1R directly supports PC maturation and that in turn PCs fashion the intestinal stem cell niche
Tense-lax contrasts in Indian English vowels: transfer effects from L1 Telugu at the phonetics-phonology interface
We investigate the effects of L1 Telugu on tense-lax contrasts in Indian English vowels. While English has a tense-lax contrast in high vowels, / iː, ɪ, uː, ʊ/, with duration as an additional cue, Telugu has only a shortlong contrast, /i, iː, u, uː/, though these also have the lax allophones /ɪ, ɪː, ʊ, ʊː/ as a result of vowel harmony (VH), triggered by a following low vowel. We examine whether L1 transfer effects are limited to the ‘base’ phonological inventory (e.g. ‘borrowing’ the Telugu length contrast for English), or whether speakers access the spectrally closer VH allophones from Telugu. The results reveal something more complex, with some speakers showing tense-lax allophones also for Telugu length contrasts. In L1-L2 transfer, these speakers exapt these phonetically laxer short allophones for the English lax vowels. The other speakers, showing less tense-lax variation all round in L1, create entirely new phonetic categories for the English lax vowels
Participatory methods to engage health service users in the development of electronic health resources: Systematic review
© Gaye Moore, Helen Wilding, Kathleen Gray, David Castle. Background: When health service providers (HSP) plan to develop electronic health (eHealth) resources for health service users (HSU), the latter’s involvement is essential. Typically, however, HSP, HSU, and technology developers engaged to produce the resources lack expertise in participatory design methodologies suited to the eHealth context. Furthermore, it can be difficult to identify an established method to use, or determine how to work stepwise through any particular process. Objective: We sought to summarize the evidence about participatory methods and frameworks used to engage HSU in the development of eHealth resources from the beginning of the design process. Methods: We searched for studies reporting participatory processes in initial development of eHealth resources from 2006 to 2016 in 9 bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Emcare, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ACM Guide to Computing Literature, and IEEE Xplore. From 15,117 records initially screened on title and abstract for relevance to eHealth and early participatory design, 603 studies were assessed for eligibility on full text. The remaining 90 studies were rated by 2 reviewers using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool Version 2011 (Pluye et al; MMAT) and analyzed with respect to health area, purpose, technology type, and country of study. The 30 studies scoring 90% or higher on MMAT were included in a detailed qualitative synthesis. Results: Of the 90 MMAT-rated studies, the highest reported (1) health areas were cancer and mental disorders, (2) eHealth technologies were websites and mobile apps, (3) targeted populations were youth and women, and (4) countries of study were the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Of the top 30 studies the highest reported participatory frameworks were User-Centered Design, Participatory Action Research Framework, and the Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management (CeHRes) Roadmap, and the highest reported model underpinning development and engagement was Social Cognitive Theory. Of the 30 studies, 4 reported on all the 5 stages of the CeHRes Roadmap. Conclusions: The top 30 studies yielded 24 participatory frameworks. Many studies referred to using participatory design methods without reference to a framework. The application of a structured framework such as the CeHRes Roadmap and a model such as Social Cognitive Theory creates a foundation for a well-designed eHealth initiative that ensures clarity and enables replication across participatory design projects. The framework and model need to be clearly articulated and address issues that include resource availability, responsiveness to change, and the criteria for good practice. This review creates an information resource for future eHealth developers, to guide the design of their eHealth resource with a framework that can support further evaluation and development
Misperception of voiced and voiceless obstruent length in Italian by native Italian and native Japanese speakers was compared. Both Italian and Japanese use consonant length contrastively. This may lead to the expectation that there is a positive first language transfer for the native Japanese speakers. While the native Japanese listeners’ misperception of Italian length categories was limited, they still made significantly more errors than the native Italian listeners. The native Japanese listeners’ length misperception was more noticeable when the word-medial obstruent was short than when it was long and when it was voiced than when it was voiceless
We show that benchmark-linked convex incentives can lead risk-averse money managers aware of mispricing to overinvest in overpriced securities. In the model, the managers’ risk-seeking behavior varies in response to the interaction of mispricing with convexity and benchmarking concerns. Convexity effects can exacerbate the manager’s overinvestment in overvalued nonbenchmark securities. In contrast, they potentially offset the benchmarking effects studied in the literature, leading to underinvestment in overpriced benchmark securities. Under correlated mispricing across assets, our model rationalizes positive positions in nonbenchmark, negative risk premium (i.e., “bubble”) securities and “pairs trading” in two overvalued securities. Our findings help explain several empirical puzzles
VBA v Andriotis: Is interstate freedom of movement a threat to quality assurance in Australia’s construction industry?
In Victorian Building Authority v Andriotis, the full bench of the High Court of Australia found unanimously that the Victorian registration authority was precluded from having regard to the "good character" requirements of the Victorian Building Act in deciding whether to allow a NSW-registered building practitioner to be registered in Victoria. This note acknowledges that this result is inevitable given the primacy of the (Commonwealth) mutual recognition principles over state-based regimes. However, the tendency of those principles to allow (indeed, to require) cross-state registration based upon less rigorous standards in the first state is of concern given current lack of confidence in quality assurance across the Australian construction industry
Cellular Targeting of Bispecific Antibody-Functionalized Poly(ethylene glycol) Capsules: Do Shape and Size Matter?
In the present study, a capsule system that consists of a stealth carrier based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and functionalized with bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is introduced to examine the influence of the capsule shape and size on cellular targeting. Hollow spherical and rod-shaped PEG capsules with tunable aspect ratios (ARs) of 1, 7, and 18 were synthesized and subsequently functionalized with BsAbs that exhibit dual specificities to PEG and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Dosimetry (variation between the concentrations of capsules present and capsules that reach the cell surface) was controlled through "dynamic" incubation (i.e., continuously mixing the incubation medium). The results obtained were compared with those obtained from the "static" incubation experiments. Regardless of the incubation method and the capsule shape and size studied, BsAb-functionalized PEG capsules showed >90% specific cellular association to EGFR-positive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-468 and negligible association with both control cell lines (EGFR negative Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1 and murine macrophages RAW 264.7) after incubation for 5 h. When dosimetry was controlled and the dose concentration was normalized to the capsule surface area, the size or shape had a minimal influence on the cell association behavior of the capsules. However, different cellular internalization behaviors were observed, and the capsules with ARs 7 and 18 were, respectively, the least and most optimal shape for achieving high cell internalization under both dynamic and static conditions. Dynamic incubation showed a greater impact on the internalization of rod-shaped capsules (∼58-67% change) than on the spherical capsules (∼24-29% change). The BsAb-functionalized PEG capsules reported provide a versatile particle platform for the evaluation and comparison of cellular targeting performance of capsules with different sizes and shapes in vitro