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    Asthma control, severity and lung function impairment through network analysis in children

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    Background: Achieving and maintaining asthma control in children is the primary goal recommended by current guidelines. Aim: To identify risk factors associated with Asthma control and severity, as well as their relative weight. Methods: Within a consecutive series of outpatients visited in a three years period at the IBIM pediatric clinic, we selected 128 persistent asthmatics. A standardized medical interview was carried out to collect information on environmental risk factors, symptoms and comorbidities. Spirometry was performed using Pony FX, Cosmed, Italy; spirometric values were expressed as %pred using GLI-2012equation. Statistical analyses were performed by using R. Results: The identifies a statistical model in which green nodes indicate response variables and light blue nodes indicate covariates. A link between two nodes suggests a strong relation between the corresponding variables whereas a missing link indicates no statistically significant relationship. To test predictive capacities of nodes we use ROC curves. AUC for GINA asthma control, asthma severity, and FEV1 were 0.68, 0.81 and 0.91, respectively. CONCLUSION Through a network analysis we were able to identify risk factors for asthma control, asthma severity, FEF2575 and FEV1. While Gina Severity, FEF2575 and FEV1 can be predicted quite well, Gina control is more difficult to be predicted to and further investigation seems to be necessary

    Locomozione Bipede: aumentare la stabilit\ue0 riducendo gli errori

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    Si discute sulla locomozione bipede e su come aumentare la stabilit\ue0 riducendo gli error

    SINDROME DA ATTIVAZIONE MACROFAGICA SECONDARIA AD IMMUNODEFICIT

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    Introduzione: la sindrome da attivazione macrofagica (SAM) \ue8 una condizione clinica rara, di cui esistono forme primitive (es. deficit di perforine) e secondarie ad infezioni, farmaci, immunodeficit; nel 10% dei casi rappresenta una complicanza dell'artrite idiopatica giovanile sistemica (AIG). Criteri diagnostici: febbre, epatosplenomegalia, citopenia bilineare, aumento di ferritina, transaminasi, ipertrigliceridemia ed ipofibrinogenemia con segni di emofagocitosi all'aspirato midollare. Terapia: metilprednisolone a 30 mg/Kg/die ev e terapia della patologia di base; nei no-responders trova impiego l'uso dei farmaci immunosoppressori come ciclosporina, Anakinra per forme secondarie ad AIG, e trapianto di midollo per HLH. Case Report: R.S., 12 anni, gentilizio positivo per artrite sistemica in linea materna. APR negativa, vaccinazioni secondo legge. APP: giunge per febbre continuo-remittente antibioticoresistente. E.O. : TC 39\ub0C, aspetto sofferente, rash fugace al volto, artralgie diffuse, epatosplenomegalia. Restante E.O. nei limiti. Esami ematochimici: PCR 34,8 (vn <0,5), GB 8.860/mm3 (N 89,8 %), PLTs 69.000/mm3, Ferritina 750 mg/dl, Trigliceridi 245 mg/dl, Fibrinogeno 794 mg/dl. Esami microbiologici, autoimmunitari e studio genetico di HLH nella norma. Aspirato midollare: emofagocitosi, assenza di blasti. Si pone diagnosi di SAM e inizia terapia con boli di cortisone ev (30 mg/kg/die) con miglioramento clinico. Al follow-up ambulatoriale riscontro di neutropenia persistente per cui esegue esami mirati per lo studio di immunodeficit: dosaggio immunoglobuline, tipizzazione linfocitaria, test della degranulazione ed espressione dei CD107, studio della funzionalit\ue0 delle perforine risultati nella norma; risposta Ab al vaccino anti- HBV assente. In atto presa in carico ambulatoriale, pratica antibioticoterapia alle ricadute febbrili. Conclusioni: la SAM \ue8 una condizione clinica rara a possibile esito infausto. Fondamentale risulta essere la diagnosi tempestiva e la terapia precoce per ridurre il rischio di complicanze a breve e a lungo termine. Sebbene la maggior parte dei casi sia secondaria ad AIG sistemica, \ue8 importante escludere le altre forme con uno studio mirato agli immunodeficit. Nel caso descritto, l\u2019immunodeficit svelato dalla mancata risposta alla vaccinazione anti HBV testimonia un deficit dei linfociti T helper coattivatori dei linfociti B

    LAURENT DEMANZE, \u201cUn nouvel \ue2ge de l\u2019enqu\ueate. Portraits de l\u2019\ue9crivain contemporain en enqu\ueateur\u201d, Paris, Corti, 2019, \uabLes essais\ubb, 292 pp.

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    Breve recensione a monografia dedicata alle diverse declinazioni della pratica dell'inchiesta in rapporto con la realt\ue0 attuale nel panorama letterario francese contemporaneo

    Cambiamenti climatici e allergie

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    Il cambiamento climatico rappresenta una delle maggiori minacce per l\u2019umanit\ue0 e la natura, in grado di influenzare sia la salute dell\u2019uomo e degli animali che il ciclo vitale delle piante. Numerosi studi hanno infatti evidenziato effetti sugli ecosistemi descrivendo un trend di anticipo generale negli eventi fenologici, sia per le specie vegetali sia per quelle animali. Gli Autori considerano tra i vari fattori responsabili nel contribuire a queste variazioni i parametri climatici, principalmente la temperatura e gli inquinanti atmosferici, in particolare l\u2019anidride carbonica. Le complesse interazioni tra fattori climatici ed inquinanti ambientali, causa di aumentata crescita di specie arboree allergeniche e produzione di pollini, possono incrementare il rischio di manifestazioni allergiche nei soggetti sensibilizzati attraverso meccanismi quali: il danno della mucosa delle vie aeree con compromissione della clearance mucociliare, l\u2019aumentata permeabilit\ue0 con conseguente facilitata penetrazione di allergeni, la stimolazione della risposta immunitaria con aumentata produzione di IgE. L\u2019aumentata concentrazione nell\u2019aria di allergeni inalanti aumenta in questi soggetti il rischio di rinite allergica ed asma, nonch\ue9 di riacutizzazioni di malattia in forme anche gravi. Le misure volte a contenere il degrado ambientale devono tener conto della peculiare vulnerabilit\ue0 dei bambini al fine di proteggerli da esposizioni nocive con conseguenze potenzialmente irreversibili sulla salute

    Empirical Psychology: Between Reason and Experience

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    Taking into consideration the negative meaning of the term \u201cempirical\u201d at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the title of the two great Latin treatises written by Wolff on Empirical Psychology and Rational Psychology is a challenge in itself, since it stresses the importance of the marriage between experience and reason in each and every field of our knowledge. It is no coincidence that the reference to \u201cexperimental philosophy\u201d seems key, it being part of an epistemological model in which the search of the possible materialises in the mutual exchange between a posteriori and a priori, following occurrences in the field of astronomy involving Galilei, one of the authors that Kant mentioned in the Preface to the second edition of the Critique (Kant, 1787/1911, p. 10). Differently to Kant, however, Wolff\u2019s epistemological model seems to favour a comparison with concrete experience, which serves as the cornerstone for all later developments. This does not, however, signifies that everything can limit itself to pure empiricism, due to the existing relationship between sensations and reflection, and between empirical content and rational elaboration

    Net4voice: new technologies for voice-converting in barrier-free learning environments\u201d

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    The Net4Voice project aims to increase the quality of learning opportunities promoting the adoption of barrier-free learning environments and the development of innovative methodologies which use speech recognition (SR) technologies. SR technologies can automatically transform a lecturer\u2019s speech into digital text in real-time, generating an electronic transcription of the lesson or conference ready to be printed or delivered through different devices and channels. This paper intends to disseminate information and results obtained so far through the Net4Voice project, financed by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme. In particular the objectives of this article are to present the project's objectives and the activities implemented to achieve them; describe the learning methodology developed and show the first outcomes of ongoing tests. Net4Voice started in December 2007 and ends in November 2009. The project involves three universities and two high schools, where students with different kinds of auditory or motor disabilities can particularly benefit from the use of speech recognition technologies to follow lessons in an accessible learning environment without additional intermediary support. Second language learners also benefit from these technologies, as once the class has finished they are able to access the multimedia transcriptions available and read or listen the lessons again. Net4Voice aims at defining a clear scheme to assess the impact of speech recognition technologies in education, by experimenting it in at least three different learning contexts: university, school and adult education classrooms. Moreover, the project monitors the effectiveness of a new learning methodology, a pedagogical support system, in order to use technology at its best, exploiting its potential, adapting it to students\u2019 conditions and needs and combining software with personal teaching experience and methods

    The choice and use of enabling technologies in educational environments: research findings and case report

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    This chapter is informed by the work of researchers that report research outcomes and case studies regarding the adoption of AT solutions in educational environments. The aim is to provide school staff and other professionals in the field of education an insight of state of art research and related practice innovation including different examples of technologies for the empowerment of learners with disabilities are presented. A detailed description of six case studies is provided by their respective authors, each of whom has highlighted specific aspects of the AT practices and experiences implemented. The common feature of these case studies consists of enabling learners to achieve a major sense of autonomy, independence, belonging to the community as well as to overcome some cultural and social barriers through the use of innovative solutions. In detail, case studies are structured in a way that captures the general description of the setting, the persons involved, the main barriers, needs and opportunities identified. Also, case studies reported in this chapter highlight how technology was made helpful and effective in addressing the needs and opportunities, what were the outcomes of the use of technology, and what conditions have to be met in order to make a similar experience possible and replicable on the base of lessons learned and authors\u2019 recommendations. These experiences come from different sources. Four of the cases consist research studies developed in the framework of the ASSISTID Programme. The first one explores the challenges faced in using virtual reality in special education, the second ASSISTID case report is on adapting the Irish Matching Person with Technology tool through a Universal Design approach, the third one on assistive technology for reading and comprehension for learners with autism and intellectual disability and the fourth one of this programme is on assistive technology for inclusive learning in non classroom settings. In addition, the fifth case report of this chapter concerns the use of a digital solution for helping people with cognitive disabilities to learn new skills and achieve independence, and the last one reports the experience of robot-based activities for creating an inclusive learning scenario developed by the Assistive Technology Center ofAIAS Bologna Onlus

    Profiling Consumers Through Big Data Analytics: Strengths and Weaknesses of Article 22 GDPR. Global Privacy Law Review, 1(2).

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    A new form of knowledge production that is flourishing in the Big Data age is profiling. In general, profiling means any form of discovering or constructing knowledge from large sets of data originating from a variety of sources. In a narrow sense, profiling is a way of making individual profiles, i.e. sets of characteristics, features, and attributes through which a person or group can be discerned from another person or group. Profiling is a relatively novel concept in European Union data protection law. It is defined in Article 4 (4) of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). However, Article 22 of the GDPR determines the scope of protection in the case of profiling. This article focuses on an interpretation of Article 22. In addition, this article aims to give an overview of the wording, limitation and potential regulatory gaps, which exist in Article 22 of the GDP
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