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    A recursive transformation of central cognitive mechanisms : the shift from partial to whole representations

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    In this paper the various transitions observed in children's behavior between 5 and 7 years of age are considered as resulting from a general transformation of central cognitive mechanisms. This transformation is characterized by a shift from partial to whole representations. It will be illustrated by means of experiments on construction of simple tools and on competences in intuitive physics as expressed through actions and judgements

    The scavenger receptor class B, type I is a primary determinant of paraoxonase-1 association with high-density lipoproteins

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    OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of the scavenger receptor (SR) BI to the mechanism by which high-density lipoprotein (HDL) acquires paraoxonase-1 (PON1). METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum PON1 activity contributes to the antioxidant capacity of HDLs and is suggested to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The association of PON1 with HDL is a major determinant of its serum activity levels. PON1 secretion was studied in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary and HepG2 models. Complementary analyses were performed in transgenic models. Modulation of SR-BI expression, by SR-BI small and interfering RNA knockdown and pharmacologically, correlated with significant changes (P<0.01) in PON1 secretion to HDLs and very-low-density lipoproteins. Block lipid transport-1 (BLT1), which increases the affinity of HDL for SR-BI without modulating its expression, was associated with significant increases in secretion. Downregulating postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens kinase in HepG2 reduced cell SR-BI protein and lowered enzyme secretion. Serum PON1 activity was significantly reduced in postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens kinase knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identifies SR-BI as a major determinant of the capacity of HDL to acquire PON1. It reinforces the concept of the receptor as a docking molecule, allowing communication between HDL and the cell, and extends the importance of SR-BI to HDL metabolism and function

    La formation des enseignants en éducation physique : recherches sur les pratiques des formateurs et sur l'activité des stagiaires

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    Leçon d’adieu du professeur de la Faculté de droit Nicolas Michel.

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    Leçon d’adieu du professeur de la Faculté de droit Nicolas Michel

    Influence of rifampin on fleroxacin pharmacokinetics

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    Staphylococcus aureus infections have been successfully treated in animal models with the combination of fleroxacin and rifampin. We studied the influence of rifampin, a potent cytochrome P-450 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of fleroxacin in 14 healthy young male volunteers. Subjects were given 400 mg of fleroxacin orally once a day for 3 days to reach steady state. After a wash-out period of 2 days, the same subjects received 600 mg of rifampin orally once daily for 7 days. On days 5 to 7 of rifampin treatment, 400 mg of fleroxacin was again administered once daily. Concentrations of fleroxacin as well as its two major urinary metabolites, N-demethyl- and N-oxide-fleroxacin, in plasma and urine were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The extent of hepatic enzyme induction by rifampin was confirmed by a significant increase of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol urinary output from 160.8 +/- 41.4 to 544.8 +/- 120.7 micrograms/4 h. There were no significant changes in the peak fleroxacin concentration in plasma (6.3 +/- 1.2 versus 6.2 +/- 1.9 mg/liter), time to maximum concentration of fleroxacin in plasma (1.1 +/- 0.9 versus 1.3 +/- 1.1 h), or renal clearance (58.3 +/- 16.4 versus 61.9 +/- 19.2 ml/min). The area under the curve AUC (71.4 +/- 15.8 versus 62.2 +/- 13.7 mg.h/liter) and the terminal half-life of fleroxacin (11.4 +/- 2.2 versus 9.2 +/- 1.1 h) decreased (P < 0.05), while the total plasma clearance increased from 97.7 +/- 21.6 to 112.3 +/- 25.8 ml/min (P < 0.01). Despite being statistically significant, this 15% increase in total plasma clearance does not appear to be clinically relevant. Metabolic clearance by N demethylation was increased ( 6.9 +/- 2.4 versus 12.5 +/- 3.2 ml/min; P < 0.01), whereas clearance by N oxidation did not change (5.8 +/- 1.1 versus 5.8 +/- 1.5 ml/min). Fleroxacin elimination was slightly increased (about 15%) through induction of metabolic clearance to N-demethyl-fleroxacin. Since fleroxacin levels remained above the MIC for 90% of the tested isolates of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus for at least 24 h, dose adjustment does not appear necessary, at least for short-term treatments

    Conférence de René Roudaut, ambassadeur de France en Suisse sur «l’élément religieux dans les relations internationales», le 30 septembre 2015.

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    Conférence de René Roudaut, ambassadeur de France en Suisse sur «l’élément religieux dans les relations internationales», le 30 septembre 2015

    Structural Variation in Old English Root Clauses

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    A standard observation concerning basic constituent order in Old English (OE) is that the position of finite verbs varies by clause type. In root clauses, the finite verb tends to occur towards the beginning of the clause and we frequently find Verb Second (V2) order. In contrast, in subordinate clauses finite verbs generally occur towards the end of the clause, and these clauses are frequently verb-final. In this article we challenge the traditional assumption that verb-final orders and, hence, the occurrence of the finite verb in a head-final structural position are rare in OE root clauses. We present new data demonstrating that the frequency of head-final structure in OE root clauses is much higher than previously acknowledged. We then explore some of the implications of this finding for the general structural analysis of OE

    Chemoattractant receptor promotion of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane of HL-60 cells. A role for cytosolic free calcium elevations and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate production

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    The mechanisms by which the chemotactic peptide formyl-methyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine stimulates Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane were investigated in the human promyelocytic cell line HL-60, induced to differentiate with dimethyl sulfoxide. Ca2+ influx was determined: (a) from the initial rate of Mn2+ influx, apparent from the quenching of intracellular quin2 or fura-2 fluorescence; (b) from the rate of the elevation of cytosolic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, upon readdition of Ca2+ to cells previously stimulated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. [3H]Inositol tris-, tetrakis-, and pentakisphosphates were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography procedure which was optimized for the separation of inositol tetrakisphosphates, yielding three predominant isomers: inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, and inositol 1,3,4, 6-tetrakisphosphate. Both the kinetics and agonist dose dependence of Ca2+ influx stimulation correlated closely with the corresponding receptor-mediated variations of [Ca2+]i either in the presence or in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Of the different inositol phosphates determined in parallel and under the same conditions, accumulation of [3H]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 correlated best with Ca2+ influx both temporally and in its dose dependence in the presence or in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate was also correlated but to a lesser extent. Attenuations of [Ca2+]i elevations by decreasing extracellular Ca2+ or by increasing the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering capacity with quin2 led to parallel inhibition of Ca2+ influx and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 production. In conclusion: 1) activation of Ca2+ influx by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine depends on the elevation of [Ca2+]i, the latter being initiated by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores; 2) Ins(1,3, 4,5)P4 is a strong candidate for maintaining receptor-mediated activation of Ca2+ influx in differentiated HL-60 cells

    La traduction à but ludique, entre traduction et créativité : le cas appliqué du jeu de cartes Gloom

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    En se basant sur l'expérience de la traduction du jeu de carte Gloom, le présent mémoire vise à déterminer les caractéristiques et difficultés particulières de la traduction des jeux de société. L'analyse porte sur les particularités de la traduction des jeux de société en général ainsi que sur les difficultés de traduction propres au jeu Gloom, qui comporte des éléments languagiers importants tels que des jeux de mots, des allitérations et des références culturelles. Le thème général est donc le processus de la traduction à but ludique. Les éléments saillants de la traduction complète du jeu (qui a été effectuée dans le cadre de ce travail) et les solutions trouvées aux divers problèmes de traduction sont commentés et justifiés


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