Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet - Academic Archive On-line

    ICA AB is Sweden’s largest retail and wholesale firm, a cooperation of retail proprietors. Here it is studied as the nation’s largest media firm. It is the largest advertiser, the largest publisher of consumer magazines, and plausibly the most advanced user of household shopping data for marketing purposes. ICA’s marketing media system is operated by a constellation of different professional groups, and the study at hand asks questions about how practitioners in different professional communities relate to the idea of value and value creation, how their social practices pushes them towards divergent understandings and priorities, and what such differences do to their opportunities to collaborate within ICA’s marketing processes. We are all ‘practitioners’ in the sense that we go about our daily lives conducting various practices that create value for ourselves and for others. We act in routinized fashions surrounded by social codes that guides us in how to combine and integrate tools, skills and products in different combinations. Since they seem to capture the very purpose of marketing, ‘value’ and ‘value creation’ are concepts which long have been central to the academic debate. However, if our value-creating practices are guided by social codes, this has consequences for marketers and marketing that has been largely left aside in the mainstream marketing theory. Over two years, 2007-2008, through qualitative interviewing and participant observation, the study follows ICA’s marketing communications process and some of its most central practitioners – marketing managers, media agency specialists, editorial staff, and TV network sales representatives. It describes their involvement in TV advertising campaigns, in the customer magazine Buffé, and in the introduction of mass-customized direct marketing in the project Mina varor. Combining some of the most widely cited marketing theories on value creation with a sociological view on activity forwarded by Practice Theory, this thesis suggests that value is best seen as being formed along two intertwined processes – value creation which is the process of physical activity, and value construction which is a social process of understanding what is to be regarded valuable. The findings provide firstly a detailed mapping of how practitioners articulate marketing communications value, what aspects they emphasize, and how they interpret the objective of their practices. Secondly, the study links the articulations of value to 16 value-forming marketing communications practices. Marketing managers, media agency specialists, editorial staff, and TV network sales representatives are all described as acting according to a ‘practical logic’ of their respective professional communities. These logics combine practices for marketing communications production, for mutual interaction, and for valuation of processes, products and outcomes. The benefits of coordination and collaboration have been forwarded in marketing (relationships and networks) and marketing communications (integrated marketing communications) literature over the past decades. The concluding discussion concerns how and to which extent practical logics can be altered, changed, or aligned towards mutually rewarding goals. In other words, how can two parties work together if they have divergent understandings of value, and conversely how can two parties learn to understand value by working together? It thereby puts focus on marketing communications management, and contrary to many textbooks in the field, this study does not describe marketing communications as a de-humanized instrument in the marketer’s toolbox, but as a challenge of coordinating practitioners, practices, and understandings

    I dagens arbetsliv verkar det, överlag, som att det ställs höga krav på personliga egenskaper. Det som bestämmer vilka egenskaper som tas med i en platsannons är vilka personliga krav tjänsten fordrar för att en anpassning till arbetsgruppen ska vara möjlig. Vid utformandet av en platsannons bör de personliga egenskaperna som anges tas i beaktning då tolkningar kring dem kan se ut på olika sätt beroende på vilken kontext en individ befinner sig i. Utifrån det valde vi att genomföra den här studien vars syfte var att ta reda på om det språkliga budskapet angående de personliga egenskaperna i platsannonser når fram på, ett för arbetsgivaren, önskvärt sätt; samt om det finns skillnader mellan arbetsgivarens och de arbetssökandes tolkningar gällande de personliga egenskaper som återges. Utifrån syftet har frågeställningar formulerats, som besvarats i uppsatsen. Den första frågan behandlade vilka konsekvenser kommunikationskanalen och envägskommunikationen får för hur budskapet i en platsannons når fram och tolkas av mottagaren. Nästa fråga som undersöktes var hur arbetsgivaren och de arbetssökande tolkar de personliga egenskaperna i annonserna. Slutligen besvarar frågorna tre och fyra om det finns några skillnader och samband mellan tolkningarna av de personliga egenskaperna. Vår studie stöds av en teoretisk referensram som bland annat behandlar kommunikation och tolkningslära, rekrytering och platsannonsering samt beskrivningar av de personliga egenskaper som vi har fokuserat på i undersökningen. För att få svar på syftet och frågeställningarna använde vi oss av en kvalitativ metod, med intervjuer som tillvägagångssätt. Studien utgår från två platsannonser, vars utformare vi intervjuade. Då syftet var att få två olika perspektiv på fenomenet intervjuade vi även arbetssökande. Under intervjuerna fokuserade vi till stor del på respondenternas tolkningar kring de personliga egenskaperna som fanns i platsannonserna. Efter genomförd studie samt analys av den, kom vi fram till en övergripande slutsats; vilken är att det finns skillnader mellan arbetsgivarens och de arbetssökandes tolkningar angående de personliga egenskaperna. Arbetsgivarnas tolkningar inryms i de arbetssökandes, trots det uppstod ett tolkningsproblem. Tolkningsproblemet visade sig i form av att de arbetssökande lade en bredare betydelse bakom egenskaperna än arbetsgivarna. Att de arbetssökande hade en bredare tolkning av begreppen, medförde att de hade ett större urval av tolkningar att välja på. Det ger i sin tur upphov till att den arbetssökande kan välja en tolkning som inte stämmer överens med arbetsgivarens. Vi upptäckte dessutom att det fanns betydande samband mellan egenskaperna. Med samband menar vi att egenskaperna är sammankopplade med varandra och därför upptäcktes en svårighet för våra respondenter att entydigt definiera dem. På grund av att samband mellan egenskaperna existerar så tolkas de på ett brett sätt; därför påträffades även skillnader angående tolkningarna, vilket återkopplas till vår övergripande slutsats.Today it seems like it is important with individual personal qualities in the labour market. The factor that determines what kind of qualities that ought to be included in a work ad are which personal demands the position requires, in due to the individuals’ possible adjustment to the work group. When forming the work ad the personal qualities ought to be considered because the interpretations regarding them can appear in different ways depending on which context the individual exist in. On this basis we chose to go through with this study. The purpose of the study was to find out if the linguistic message regarding the personal qualities reaches the recipient in a, for the employer desirable way; and if there are any differences between interpretations regarding the personal qualities through the two perspectives, employer and the persons looking for jobs. On the basis of the purpose of the study, some questions have been formed. These questions have been answered in this essay. The first questions discuss what consequences the channel of communication and the one-way-communication cause regarding the messages ability to reach and be interpreted by the recipient. The next question examined was how the employer and the jobseeker interpret the personal qualities in the work ads. The last thing examined is whether or not there are any differences or connections between the interpretations of the personal qualities. The theoretical reference supports our study. The theoretical references consist, among other things, of communication and the knowledge of interpretation, recruitment and job advertisement and descriptions of personal qualities. In order to answer and approach the purpose and the questions of the study, we used a qualitative method with interviews. The study is based on two work advertisements. The creators of these ads were interviewed. Because of the purpose we wanted to have two different perspectives on the phenomenon, thus we interviewed jobseekers as well. During the interviews we focused on the respondents interpretations about the personal qualities in the work ads. After completing the analysis and the study, we came to an overall conclusion; which was that there are differences between the employer and the jobseekers interpretation about the personal qualities. The employers interpretations is included in the jobseekers, despite this a problem regarding the interpretations occurred. These problems were shown in the form of the jobseekers wider view of the qualities, than the employers. The jobseekers wider interpretation of the qualities resulted in a larger selection of interpretations. The jobseeker can choose an interpretation that might not be equal with the employers. We also discovered that there are significant connections between some of the qualities. These connections result in a difficulty for the respondents to define the qualities in a homogeneous way. Because of the existence of these connections they are interpreted in a wider way; thus differences was also discovered, which reconnects to our overall conclusion

    With the increasing trend of globalization, the impact of globalization has lead to a fast changing environment the boundaries for business is diminishing day by day so is the movement of people between different countries and cultures. The requirements of multinational organizations like expansion plans in international market has continuingly increased the need to understand the cultural dimensions of different countries to achieve better results. Therefore the companies are required to understand a national culture’s impact on areas like communication in multicultural teams in different countries which has a high degree of effect on team performance. So our research question revolves around this topic as “How does culture influence communication in multi cultural teams”. This thesis makes an attempt to investigate the influence of national cultures on communication in project teams in China and India by focusing on construction industry based on a number of factors including Hofstede’s (1980) cultural dimensional framework. The researchers intend to explore the cultural factors having major impact on communication in multicultural project teams of both countries. Throughout our research and study, useful lessons on national cultures impact on communication can be drawn for multicultural project team in China and India. It can provide a better insight for the project teams to have concern for and understand why people from different countries and cultures react or respond to various situations in a different manner, giving high emphasis to communication process. To support our thesis a total of 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers in different companies from construction sector. An empirical qualitative research using semi-structured interviews was conducted from a total of 12 project team members from multinational companies in China and India based on their experiences on cultural influence on team communication when working in project teams. The research revealed that there are significant differences and similarities in communication styles of Chinese and Indian teams, and the differences are mostly attributed to have strong links with cultural aspects. Specially with increasing economical changes the traditional patterns of behavior in communication are changing with time. The results also addressed number of similarities; especially in both the countries, culture continues to dominate most aspects of communication. The major implication is that the knowledge of the cultural differences and similarities would facilitate better team performance. Therefore, by keeping in mind the importance as well as the impact of various national cultures and presenting each member with a better understanding and knowledge about social background of the team mates within the multicultural teams, arguments and conflicts arise due to misconception and pre-judgment can be reduced. Hence it will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the teams working in multicultural environment

    I samarbete med Terapikolonier AB väcktes intresset för att följa upp de barn som kom ut till kollo sommaren 2006. Syftet med uppsatsen är att genom för- och eftermätningar se om barnen utvecklats efter kollo när det gäller syn på vänskap, självförtroende och social förmåga. Cornell Interview of Children´s Perceptions of Friendships (CIPF) och ”Jag tycker jag är” användes som intervjuinstrument. Barnen visade sig få lägre poäng och skattningar i jämförelse med normgruppen. Vid uppföljningen fick de flesta barnen lika eller högre skattningar på de tre skalorna; Syn på vänskap, Självförtroende och Socialförmåga i CIPF. Störst förändring hade skett på skala 2, Självförtroende. ”Jag tycker jag är” tycks inte vara sensitivt nog för att fånga upp dessa barns svårigheter. Resultaten diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning som har visat att barn som upplever kamratsvårigheter löper större risk för framtida psykiska och sociala problem

    Uppsatsen tar sin övergripande utgångspunkt i vår förståelse för teorier inom militärteorin. Det föreligger flera utmaningar vid tolkning av teorier. Exempel på detta kan utgöras av författarens och betraktarens förförståelse, språkliga eller vetenskapsteoretiska perspektiv. Därmed kan också följdfel uppstå i doktriner och riktlinjer.  I det specifika utgör J.F.C Fuller och Martin van Creveld teorier om fighting power empiri när de anlyseras genom en metateoretisk ram bestående av förståelse – förklara och uppifrån – nedifrån kompletterad med en analys avseende krigföringsnivå. Syftet med uppsatsen är att skapa en större förståelse för begreppet fighting power genom att analysera den vetenskapsteoretiska utgångspunkten hos Fuller och Creveld. Vidare syftar uppsatsen till att skapa förståelse för att fighting power inte kan betraktas isolerat utan som del av ett större sammanhang. Uppsatsen resultat visar hur Fuller och Creveld har olika utgångspunkt när de skapade sina teorier. Fullers teori utgår från ett förklaringsinriktat uppifrånperspektiv och Crevelds från ett förståelseinriktat nedifrånperspektiv. Vidare visar uppsatsen hur båda teorierna främst omfattar den taktiska nivån trots skillnaderna i deras framställning. Uppsatsen påvisar också vikten av de olika förhållningssätten för att kunna förstå fighting power i ett sammanhang för att därmed kunna omsätta detta i doktrinära eller taktiska riktlinjer. Avslutningsvis diskuteras giltigheten i den svenska beskrivningen av krigföringsförmåga (pelarmodellen) utan att betrakta det i ett större sammanhang

    Den svenska psykiatrireformen : bland brukare, eldsjälar och byråkrater

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    In 1990, a government commission was formed with the task of improving care and services to persons with serious psychiatric disabilities. The government bill that resulted from the work of the Commission constitutes an attempt to clarify the responsibility of the municipal social services for residential and occupational services. The Swedish Mental Health Reform came into eff ect in 1995. The aims of the thesis are to describe, analyze and critically review the planning and implementation of the Reform and to present it within a historical perspective on caregiving. The thesis consists of two case-studies: One encompassing fi ve municipalities and their method of planning and implementing the Reform. The second is about a vocational rehabilitation project for persons with psychiatric disabilities which began in connection with the Reform. In addition to the two component studies, the substance of the report is composed of comprehensive written material. In the analysis it becomes evident that the report of the Commission is a document characterised by a strong ideology and one that takes a position regarding the questions of division of responsibility and work methods. The Commission’s problem lies in diffi culties in delineating and defi ning the target group. The result from the studies shows that the boundaries of responsibility between the social services and psychiatric care organization have become clearer, but grey zones continue to exist in the areas of rehabilitation and outpatient care. Few local policians, and a very small part of the local administrations were involved in the implementation of the Reform — the responsibility has rested with certain key individuals. The implementation has not been promoted by specifi c strong professions, and many eff orts to re-educate personell have been half-hearted and based on “old” knowledge. Personnel in the new settings express uncertainty, as they are unclear as to the expectations of the organization — those who were recruited from psychiatric care often feel degraded and insuffi ciently utilized. User- and family organizations have, in connection with the Reform, built up and developed their activities by means of earmarked funding provided by the state. As a result, an alternative knowledge base has developed in relation to work with the psychiatrically disabled. A conclusion is that the implementation of the Reform has been diffi cult, but that it is far from a complete failure. There are just too many positive experiences. However, much of the success must be attributed to the funding by the state. The long-term discourse will take shape and depend on how enduring the early initiatives prove to be

    Trafikflödeskarta mc : Västmanlands län

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    Genomsnittligt dygnsflöde för mc baserat på ordinarie ÅDT-mätningar mellan 2006 och 2017.Det finns ett informationsblad till kartan

    Investigating Turkish university students’ attitudes towards refugees in a time of Civil War in neighboring Syria

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    Thousands of refugees have immigrated to Turkey because of the current Civil War in neighboring Syria. This is causing tensions between refugees and locals. These increasingly negative attitudes towards the incoming victims of conflict are of particular interest. The present study, therefore, aimed at determining the premises of the emergence of such negative attitudes. The research sample consisted of university students who all studied at various faculties at Cumhuriyet University in the Turkish province of Sivas. Data were collected by the Attitude Scale Towards Refugees, the Patriotism Attitude Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Cirhinlioğlu Religiosity Scale. Data were analyzed by Independent Sample t-tests as well as using Stepwise Regression Analyses. Results showed that the feeling of empathy correlated negatively with negative attitudes towards refugees, while blind patriotism, religiosity, and having nationalist/conservative orientations, correlated positively. Men were found to be more negative than women. The feeling of empathy was the most prominent factor in predicting the nature of attitudes towards refugees. Religious doctrine and distancing oneself from conservative and patriotic perspectives appeared to be effective in potentially preventing the development of negative attitudes. In conclusion, research results are discussed in the light of relevant literature

    Access and Accountability - A Study of Open Data in Kenya

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    This study explores Open Data actors in Kenya, focusing on the issue of transparency and accountability. Drawing on an exploratory quantitative analysis of existing statistical material of usage of the Kenya Open Data Initiative website and 15 qualitative interviews conducted primarily in Nairobi, the study analyses key factors – both enabling and disabling – that shape transparency initiatives connected to Open Data in Kenya. The material is analysed from three perspectives: a) a review based on existing research around impact and effectiveness of transparency and accountability initiatives; b) based on theories on human behaviour in connection to transparency and accountability; and c) introducing a critical perspective on power relations based on Michel Foucault’s concept of ‘governmentality’. The study shows that the Kenya Open Data Initiative has potential to become an effective transparency and accountability initiative in Kenya, but that its future is heavily dependent on current trends within the political context and fluctuations in power relations. Applying a stronger user-perspective and participatory approach is critical.Open Data is a relatively new area within the governance and development field, and academia can play an important role in enhancing methodology and impact assessments to create more effective and sustainable initiatives and ensure that future Open Data initiatives can be both accessible and constitute a base for accountability

    Resursbesparande mätmetoder inom användbarhet

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    Detta arbete är en jämförande studie mellan mätningar inom användbarhet. Studien jämför en heuristisk utvärdering med ett användartest, med inriktning på ekonomi och resultat. Syftet är att belysa den ekonomiska aspekten mellan de två metoderna. Samtidigt undersöker studien om heuristisk utvärdering är en metod som lämpar sig som beslutsunderlag. Studien är genomförd på ett tryckeri där tryckeriets IT-system har testats och utvärderats utifrån de två metoderna. Studien baseras på kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder så som strukturerade och ostrukturerade intervjuer, observationer och enkäter.Arbetet behandlar användbarhet som begrepp och metoder för hur användbarhet mäts. Relevant teori presenteras i teoridelen och behandlas i diskussionen. De båda metoderna var relativt lika varandra. Den stora skillnaden ligger i att användartestet gav mätbara resultat medan den heuristiska utvärderingen resulterade i en givande diskussion. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv var den heuristiska utvärderingen betydligt billigare att genomföra. Undersökningen visar att den heuristiska utvärderingen fungerar bra. Dock bör metoden undersökas ytterligare för att styrka påståendet.Resource-saving methods in usability This essay is a comparative study of measuring usability. The study compares a heuristic evaluation with a usability test, with focus on economy and performance. The aim is to highlight the economic aspect between the two methods, also if the study of heuristic evaluation is a method suitable for decision-making. The study is conducted on a printing company where the company’s IT systems have been tested and evaluated on the basis of the two methods. The study is based on qualitative and quantitative methods such as structured and unstructured interviews, observation and questionnaires.The study deals with usability as a concept and different methods for measuring usability. Relevant theory is presented in the theoretical part and is discussed and addressed in the discussion.Both methods were relatively similar. The major difference is that the user test yielded measurable results, while the heuristic evaluation resulted in a fruitful discussion. From a financial perspective, the heuristic evaluation is significantly cheaper to implement. The study shows that the heuristic evaluation works well. However, the method should be further investigated to prove the claim
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