Lancaster E-Prints

Procter & Gamble (United Kingdom)

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    99435 research outputs found

    The effects of green brand image on brand loyalty : The case of mainstream fast food brands

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    While a number of studies have explored consumer attitudes and behaviors towards green brands, the importance of green brand image for mainstream brands is less well understood. This study seeks to explore if the green image of mainstream fast food brands influences consumer loyalty and how their attitudes towards and knowledge of environmental issues may affect perceptions of the environmental performance of fast food brands. Using data gathered from a convenience sample of 2001 Gen Y and Gen Z consumers in France, our study establishes a critical linkage between consumers' environmental values and brand loyalty by including green brand image as a mediator. Further, by exploring mainstream brands, rather than brands that are positioned primarily on green attributes, we find that the mediating effect of green brand image may be dependent on the brand positioning

    Global growth on life support? : The contributions of fiscal and monetary policy since the global financial crisis

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    This paper compares the role of monetary and fiscal policy shocks in advanced and emerging economies. Using a model with a hierarchical structure, we capture the variability of GDP response to policy shocks both between and within the groups of advanced and emerging countries. Our results show that the effects of fiscal stimulus are higher in advanced economies compared to emerging markets, while monetary policy is found to have more homogeneous effects on GDP. We quantify the policy contribution on GDP growth in the decade that followed the global financial crisis by means of a structural counterfactual analysis based on conditional forecasts. We find that global GDP growth benefited from substantial policy support during the global financial crisis but policy tightening thereafter, particularly fiscal consolidation, acted as a significant drag on the subsequent global recovery. In addition, we show that the role of policy has differed across countries. Specifically, in advanced economies, highly accommodative monetary policy has been counteracted by strong fiscal consolidation. By contrast, in emerging economies, monetary policy has been less accommodative since the global recession

    The Comparative Intercultural Sensitivity of American Faculty Teaching Abroad and Domestically : A Mixed-Methods Investigation Employing Participant-Generated Visuals

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    This thesis aimed to identify and compare the intercultural sensitivity, or IS, of tertiary American instructors teaching mono-national, non-American student populations abroad in the UAE and that of American tertiary instructors in multinational, non-American student populations domestically in the US. The study investigated the use of reflexive photography and photo-elicitation interviews methods as both data collection approaches and possible cultivators of IS, as well as any variation in findings between the two participant groups. The study employed a mixed-methods approach involving surveys and semi-structured photo-elicitation interviews following a four-week reflexive photography project. Qualitative data were analyzed through the lens of a developmental framework and inductively through thematic analysis to capture fuller images of participants’ environments. Both groups of participants self-report fairly high IS, with the US-based group’s sensitivity averaging higher than the UAE-based group. Both groups, on average, showed slightly increased IS quantitatively following the reflexive photography project and photo-elicitation interviews, with the UAE-based group experiencing a slightly greater increase. This research involves a small number of participants; findings should be considered for indicative purposes only. Participants’ IS, when observed through the theoretical lens, indicate more progressive sensitivity among US-based participants. Thematic analysis of interview data reflects distinct teaching contexts faced by each participant group, with five and six themes emerging from the UAE- and US-based groups, respectively. This research is the first to the best of the author’s knowledge to investigate the IS of tertiary American faculty teaching internationally diverse student populations domestically and is also the first to compare differences in IS between this group and America

    Making the Most of Seminars : Advice for Students

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    Agricultural fertilisers contribute substantially to microplastic concentrations in UK soils

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    Since their invention, plastics have driven a revolution in behavior in all aspects of our lives, including agriculture. In-use and as a waste material, plastics degrade and accumulate in agricultural systems. Accumulation of plastic pollution in agricultural systems has negative impacts on human health and agricultural productivity but little is known about concentrations of microplastics in soils. Here we used a historical time series to examine changes to microplastic concentrations in agricultural soils over time. Microplastics were stained with Nile Red and quantified using fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that microplastic concentrations increased at higher rates in soils that are amended with either organic or inorganic fertiliser between 1966 and 2022, suggesting that agricultural fertilisers are an important contributor to microplastic concentrations in agricultural soils over time. This study provides evidence that agricultural soils are receptors and reservoirs of microplastic pollution, a legacy which is growing over time

    Elevated CO 2 interacts with nutrient inputs to restructure plant communities in phosphorus‐limited grasslands

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    Globally pervasive increases in atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition could have substantial effects on plant communities, either directly or mediated by their interactions with soil nutrient limitation. While the direct consequences of N enrichment on plant communities are well documented, potential interactions with rising CO2 and globally widespread phosphorus (P) limitation remain poorly understood. We investigated the consequences of simultaneous elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N and P additions on grassland biodiversity, community and functional composition in P‐limited grasslands. We exposed soil‐turf monoliths from limestone and acidic grasslands that have received >25 years of N additions (3.5 and 14 g m−2 year−1) and 11 (limestone) or 25 (acidic) years of P additions (3.5 g m−2 year−1) to eCO2 (600 ppm) for 3 years. Across both grasslands, eCO2, N and P additions significantly changed community composition. Limestone communities were more responsive to eCO2 and saw significant functional shifts resulting from eCO2–nutrient interactions. Here, legume cover tripled in response to combined eCO2 and P additions, and combined eCO2 and N treatments shifted functional dominance from grasses to sedges. We suggest that eCO2 may disproportionately benefit P acquisition by sedges by subsidising the carbon cost of locally intense root exudation at the expense of co‐occurring grasses. In contrast, the functional composition of the acidic grassland was insensitive to eCO2 and its interactions with nutrient additions. Greater diversity of P‐acquisition strategies in the limestone grassland, combined with a more functionally even and diverse community, may contribute to the stronger responses compared to the acidic grassland. Our work suggests we may see large changes in the composition and biodiversity of P‐limited grasslands in response to eCO2 and its interactions with nutrient loading, particularly where these contain a high diversity of P‐acquisition strategies or developmentally young soils with sufficient bioavailable mineral P

    Development and deployment of an improved Anopheles gambiae s.l. field surveillance by adaptive spatial sampling design

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    IntroductionAccurate assessments of vector occurrence and abundance, particularly in widespread vector-borne diseases such as malaria, are crucial for the efficient deployment of disease surveillance and control interventions. Although previous studies have explored the benefits of adaptive sampling for identifying disease hotspots (mostly through simulations), limited research has been conducted on field surveillance of malaria vectors.MethodsWe developed and implemented an adaptive spatial sampling design in southwestern Benin, specifically targeting potential and uncertain Anopheles gambiae hotspots, a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa. The first phase of our proposed design involved delineating ecological zones and employing a proportional lattice with close pairs sampling design to maximize spatial coverage, representativeness of ecological zones, and account for spatial dependence in mosquito counts. In the second phase, we employed a spatial adaptive sampling design focusing on high-risk areas with the greatest uncertainty.ResultsThe adaptive spatial sampling design resulted in a reduced sample size from the first phase, leading to improved predictions for both out-of-sample and training data. Collections of Anopheles gambiae in high-risk and low-uncertainty areas were nearly tripled compared to those in high-risk and high-uncertainty areas. However, the overall model uncertainty increased.DiscussionWhile the adaptive sampling design allowed for increased collections of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with a reduced sample size, it also led to a general increase in uncertainty, highlighting the potential trade-offs in multi-criteria adaptive sampling designs. It is imperative that future research focuses on understanding these trade-offs to expedite effective malaria control and elimination efforts

    Tidal range electricity generation into the 22nd century

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    Tidal range electricity generation schemes are designed to have a minimum operational life of at least 120 years, making it important to plan for changes such as Sea Level Rise (SLR). Previous studies have shown that schemes can maintain the existing tidal range within the impoundment and protect areas from flooding. Here it is demonstrated that tidal range technology can maintain the current tidal extent despite SLR and suggests the operational strategies to achieve it. The approach is the only way to safeguard existing intertidal habitats. Mechanical and electrical plant requires a major overall, upgrade or replacement every 40 years; the levelised cost of energy (LCOE) is structured in 40year periods reducing after the first period. Increasing the capacity or efficiency of the plant during the refits allows the protection of low-lying areas to be maintained and more electricity to be generated. The strategy requires energy to be used in pumping to achieve the current low tidal limits and the incoming tide to be curtailed to maintain the high tide extent, but there is very little effect on annual electricity production (AEP). Flexible operation can offer some protection from riverine flooding and existing inundation cycles can be maintained. Highlights • Changes to tidal range electricity generation with increasing sea level. • Ability to protect intertidal areas and habitats by maintaining existing tide limits. • Two-way tidal range generation with pumping to existing low tide limits

    Low-Energy Ion Implantation and Deep-Mesa Si-Avalanche Photodiodes with Improved Fabrication Process

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    Since the avalanche phenomenon was first found in bulk materials, avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have been exclusively investigated. Among the many devices that have been developed, silicon APDs stand out because of their low cost, performance stability, and compatibility with CMOS. However, the increasing industrial needs pose challenges for the fabrication cycle time and fabrication cost. In this work, we proposed an improved fabrication process for ultra-deep mesa-structured silicon APDs for photodetection in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths with improved performance and reduced costs. The improved process reduced the complexity through significantly reduced photolithography steps, e.g., half of the steps of the existing process. Additionally, single ion implantation was performed under low energy (lower than 30 keV) to further reduce the fabrication costs. Based on the improved ultra-concise process, a deep-mesa silicon APD with a 140 V breakdown voltage was obtained. The device exhibited a low capacitance of 500 fF, the measured rise time was 2.7 ns, and the reverse bias voltage was 55 V. Moreover, a high responsivity of 103 A/W@870 nm at 120 V was achieved, as well as a low dark current of 1 nA at punch-through voltage and a maximum gain exceeding 1000

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