Lancaster E-Prints

    Who (and where) is credible?:Using virtual reality to examine credibility and bias of perceived race/ethnicity in urban/suburban environments

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    This study evaluates perceptions of race/ethnicity in connection to geography of urban/suburban neighborhoods. The study takes place in a region mostly populated by people identifying as Hispanic, which is reflected in the participant demographics. Before answering the survey questions, the study used Virtual Reality to immerse participants into the scene, and to develop a more realistic experience. Results indicated that perceptions of geography have a greater impact than perceptions of race/ethnicity in terms of assumed credibility. These results challenge stereotypes that are created and commonly perpetuated in our society

    Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of α-Carbonyl-α′-(hetero)aryl Sulfoxonium Ylides:Scope and Insight into the Mechanism

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    Despite recent advances, a general method for the synthesis of α-carbonyl-α′-(hetero)aryl sulfoxonium ylides is needed to benefit more greatly from the potential safety advantages offered by these compounds over the parent diazo compounds. Herein, we report the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl bromides and triflates with α-carbonyl sulfoxonium ylides. We also report the use of this method for the modification of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and for the synthesis of a key precursor of antagonists of the neurokinin-1 receptor. In addition, the mechanism of the reaction was inferred from several observations. Thus, the oxidative addition complex [(XPhos)PhPdBr] and its dimer were observed by 31P{1H} NMR, and these complexes were shown to be catalytically and kinetically competent. Moreover, a complex resulting from the transmetalation of [(XPhos)ArPdBr] (Ar = p-CF3–C6H4) with a model sulfoxonium ylide was observed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the partial rate law suggests that the transmetalation and the subsequent deprotonation are rate-determining in the catalytic cycle

    The treaty of Versailles, 80 years on.

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    Religions of East Asia.

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    Hypothesis:Bacterial induced inflammation disrupts the orderly progression of the stem cell hierarchy and has a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer

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    Background: The hierarchical model of stem cell genesis is based on the idea that the number of cell divisions between the zygote and fully differentiated epithelial cells is kept close to the minimum, which is log to the base 2 of the total number of cells produced in a human lifetime. The model assumes the orderly progression of stem cell divisions requires precise control at every stage in development. If the orderly progression is maintained then cancer will be rare. A prediction of the model is that if the orderly progression of the stem cell hierarchy is disturbed by trauma, ulceration or inflammation then cancer will occur. Hypothesis: Bacterial induced inflammation in breast ducts disturbs the stem cell hierarchy and is a cause of breast cancer. Evidence: Mammalian milk is not sterile. It contains a range of bacteria, derived endogenously by the entero-mammary circulation. The dominant flora consists of lactose fermenting bacteria. Pregnancy and breast feeding reduce the risk of subsequent breast cancer. The implication is that a lactose fermenting bacterial flora in breast ducts is protective. Malignant and benign breast tissue contains bacteria derived endogenously, but studies so far have not revealed a specific flora associated with malignancy. Periodontitis is associated with oral, oesophageal, colonic, pancreatic, prostatic and breast cancer. The pathogenic bacteria which cause periodontitis spread endogenously to cause inflammation at other epithelial sites. Meta-analysis of epidemiological studies shows that the consumption of yoghurt is associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: The hypothesis, although not proven, is supported by the available evidence. Lactose fermenting bacteria protect but pathogenic bacteria which induce inflammation raise the risk of breast cancer. The consumption of yoghurt also appears to be protective

    SuperDARN Radar Software Toolkit (RST) 4.3.1

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    This patch release features the updated AACGM 2.6 that was released by Dr. Simon Shepherd at Dartmouth College ( The RST is actively developed and maintained by the SuperDARN Data Analysis Working Group (

    Partial Inhibition of RNA Polymerase I Promotes Animal Health and Longevity

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    Health and survival in old age can be improved by changes in gene expression. RNA polymerase (Pol) I is the essential, conserved enzyme whose task is to generate the pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA). We find that reducing the levels of Pol I activity is sufficient to extend lifespan in the fruit fly. This effect can be recapitulated by partial, adult-restricted inhibition, with both enterocytes and stem cells of the adult midgut emerging as important cell types. In stem cells, Pol I appears to act in the same longevity pathway as Pol III, implicating rRNA synthesis in these cells as the key lifespan determinant. Importantly, reduction in Pol I activity delays broad, agerelated impairment and pathology, improving the function of diverse organ systems. Hence, our study shows that Pol I activity in the adult drives systemic, age-related decline in animal health and anticipates mortality

    Transforming phosphorus use on the island of Ireland:A model for a sustainable system

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    Phosphorus is an essential part of the world food web and a non-substitutable nutrient in all biological systems. Losses of phosphorus occur along the food-supply chain and cause environmental degradation and eutrophication. A key global challenge is to meet rising worldwide food demand while protecting water and environmental quality, and seeking to manage uncertainty around potential future phosphorus price or supply shocks. This paper presents a stakeholder-generated conceptual model of potential transformative change for implementing phosphorus sustainability on the island of Ireland via an ‘All-Island Phosphorus Sustainability’ workshop. Key transition pathways identified by stakeholders included: incentivising phosphorus recovery, developing collaborative networks to facilitate change, developing markets and value chains for recovered products; implementing data-informed practices on-farm to prevent losses and increase efficiencies, and harmonisation of technologies with end-user needs. A comparable model was previously produced for the North American region. We describe consensus and differences around key priorities between the two regions' conceptual models, and assess how the model produced for the island of Ireland can effect system-wide change and policy moving forward. Many of the transitional pathways and future aspirations presented in both models resonate globally and are highly pertinent to other jurisdictions

    Explaining the variation in household recycling rates across the UK

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    Household waste recycling rates vary significantly both across and within regions of the UK. This paper attempts to explain the variation by using a new data set of waste recycling rates and policy determinants for all of the UK's 434 local authorities over the period 2006Q2 to 2008Q4. Our results suggest that the method of recycling collection chosen by policy makers is an important factor influencing the recycling rate. We also find an inverse relationship between the frequency of the residual waste collection and the recycling rate
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