156 research outputs found

    Distributed OpenGL Rendering in Network Bandwidth Constrained Environments

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    Display walls made from multiple monitors are often used when very high resolution images are required. To utilise a display wall, rendering information must be sent to each computer that the monitors are connect to. The network is often the performance bottleneck for demanding applications, like high performance 3D animations. This paper introduces ClusterGL; a distribution library for OpenGL applications. ClusterGL reduces network traffic by using compression, frame differencing and multi-cast. Existing applications can use ClusterGL without recompilation. Benchmarks show that, for most applications, ClusterGL outperforms other systems that support unmodified OpenGL applications including Chromium and BroadcastGL. The difference is larger for more complex scene geometries and when there are more display machines. For example, when rendering OpenArena, ClusterGL outperforms Chromium by over 300% on the Symphony display wall at The University of Waikato, New Zealand. This display has 20 monitors supported by five computers connected by gigabit Ethernet, with a full resolution of over 35 megapixels. ClusterGL is freely available via Google Code

    Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

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    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large scale structure is however from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude fNLlocf_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc} (fNLeqf_{\rm NL}^{\rm eq}), natural target levels of sensitivity are ΔfNLloc,eq.≃1\Delta f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc, eq.} \simeq 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.Comment: 27 pages + reference

    Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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    Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61.7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61.4-61.9) in 1980 to 71.8 years (71.5-72.2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11.3 years (3.7-17.4), to 62.6 years (56.5-70.2). Total deaths increased by 4.1% (2.6-5.6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55.8 million (54.9 million to 56.6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17.0% (15.8-18.1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14.1% (12.6-16.0) to 39.8 million (39.2 million to 40.5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13.1% (11.9-14.3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42.1%, 39.1-44.6), malaria (43.1%, 34.7-51.8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29.8%, 24.8-34.9), and maternal disorders (29.1%, 19.3-37.1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe

    Multi-generational consumption of a Western diet for rodents promotes colitis-associated colorectal cancer in third-generation offspring.

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    The majority of colorectal cancer cases can be attributed to poor diet, yet Americans routinely consume highly processed foods that are energy- dense and nutrient-poor. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of ancestral or multi-generational exposure to the total Western diet (TWD), a Western-style diet formulated for rodents using human US nutrient intake data, in a murine model of inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. The hypotheses tested were 1) consumption of TWD by F0 parents would promote colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) in F3 generation offspring and 2) consumption of TWD over multiple generations would further exacerbate disease development compared to direct-exposed offspring. C57BL/6J mice were bred for three generations, during which they were fed a standard diet (AIN93G), TWD, or a simple high fat diet (DIO, 45% diet-induced obesity diet) during the F0 generation only, for the duration of F0 through F3 generations, or the F3 generation only. The azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate model of CAC was employed in F3 offspring, which were necropsied at 24 weeks of age. Notably, tumor incidence was increased by trans-generational exposure to TWD (92%) when compared to consecutive AIN93G exposure only (56%). Moreover, successive exposure to TWD markedly increased tumor burden (\u3e 3-fold increase) when compared to direct TWD exposure. Alternatively, neither trans-generational nor multi-generational exposure to DIO altered tumor incidence; however, tumor burden was unexpectedly increased in F3 offspring trans-generationally-exposed to the DIO was observed as compared to direct DIO exposure. In summary, ancestral exposure to TWD markedly increased CAC incidence and disease severity in third generation offspring that were not directly fed this diet. Additionally, continuous exposure to TWD over three generations exacerbated disease outcome in third generation offspring as compared to those fed TWD directly

    Multi-Generational Effect of Western Diet on Colorectal Cancer and Impact of Green Tea on Cancer Prevention

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    Diet is widely recognized as an important factor in lifetime cancer risk, yet Americans routinely consume foods that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor. Animal model studies to identify functional foods for cancer prevention generally do not account for typical Western dietary patterns with respect to macro- and micronutrient content. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the impact of ancestral and multi-generational consumption of a Western-style diet in a murine model of inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Additionally, we sought to determine the efficacy of green tea for prevention of Western diet-enhanced colon tumorigenesis. Previously, our group developed the Total Western Diet (TWD) for rodents, which models the typical American diet with respect to macro- and micronutrient content on an energy density basis, as opposed to other simple high fat diets traditional used in pre-clinical studies. The hypotheses to be tested in this study were 1) that ancestral exposure to the TWD will increase risk of colon cancer in F3 generation offspring and 2) that green tea will have a substantially greater health benefit in mice exposed to a Westernized diet. Mice were bred for three generations, during which they were fed TWD or a simple high fat diet in the F0 only, F0 through F3 or the F3 generation only. The azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate model of inflammation-associated CRC was employed in the F3 generation. Other key measures included body weight gain, body composition (fat and lean mass) and glucose tolerance, preliminary data for which will be presented. To date, the animal study has been completed, and analyses of tumorigenesis, histopathology and other disease biomarkers are ongoing

    Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

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    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large scale structure is however from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude fmNLmlocf_{ m NL}^{ m loc} (fmNLmeqf_{ m NL}^{ m eq}), natural target levels of sensitivity are DeltafmNLmloc,eq.simeq1Delta f_{ m NL}^{ m loc, eq.} simeq 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014
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