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    49834 research outputs found

    Being open, feeling safe and getting creative: The role of team mean openness to experience in the emergence of team psychological safety and team creativity

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    AbstractAlthough the effects of openness to experience (OTE) on individual creativity are well‐established, research on how such effects unfold in a team context is scarce. Drawing on theories of group norms and uncertainty reduction, we argue that team mean OTE leads to a climate of team psychological safety which, in turn, facilitates team creativity. We test our hypothesis over three independent studies, the first comprising 35 business student project teams, the second based on 28 professional teams from the automotive industry, both conducted in the United Kingdom, and the third comprising 24 healthcare teams in Portugal. As predicted, across all three studies, team mean OTE was positively associated with team creativity via the affective emergent state of team psychological safety. Furthermore, the mediating role of team psychological safety remained significant even when accounting for team OTE variance, alternative motivational and cognitive emergent states, namely team promotion focus (studies 1 and 2) and team exploration climate (study 3), as well as empowering leadership (study 3). Finally, in study 3, we examined the differential impact of the two major facets of OTE, intellect, and openness, and found that intellect, but not openness, was responsible for driving the indirect effects. Further analysis did not support alternative perspectives concerning team OTE variance or the interaction between mean and variance. Our findings not only contribute to theoretical understanding regarding the relationship between team personality composition, specifically OTE, and team creativity but also provide much‐needed insight into how such effects unfold. We delineate several practical implications for team design and development.</jats:p

    Investigating the reliability of estimating real-time air exchange rates in a building by using airborne particles, including PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10: A case study in Suzhou, China

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    This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of using airborne particles to estimate the real-time Air Exchange Rate (AER) of buildings, considering particle size and outdoor conditions' impact on the AER estimation accuracy. The study utilized on-site data collection and numerical simulations to analyze the factors affecting the AER prediction accuracy. Results showed that the PM1.0- and PM2.5-based empirical correlation could predict the AER of buildings with a Normalized Mean Error (NME) of less than 10% and a correlation coefficient (r) of over 0.97, outperforming the pressurization method. Fine particles with a diameter under 2.5 μm were found to be a reliable tracer for AER prediction, with a negative correlation between particle size and AER prediction accuracy due to their higher penetration rate. The study also found that outdoor particle levels and pressure differentials positively impacted the accuracy of PM-based AER estimation. These findings have practical applications for maintaining Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and accurately predicting a building's heat losses

    Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Continuous Metrics on Atomic Clouds of Unordered Points

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    The most fundamental model of a molecule is a cloud of unordered atoms, even without chemical bonds that can depend on thresholds for distances and angles. The strongest equivalence between clouds of atoms is rigid motion, which is a composition of translations and rotations. The existing datasets of experimental and simulated molecules require a continuous quantification of similarity in terms of a distance metric. While clouds of m ordered points were continuously classified by Lagrange’s quadratic forms (distance matrices or Gram matrices), their extensions to m unordered points are impractical due to the exponential number of m! permutations. We propose new metrics that are continuous in general position and are computable in a polynomial time in the number m of unordered points in any Euclidean space of a fixed dimension n.</jats:p

    Predicting product quality in continuous manufacturing processes using a scalable robust Gaussian Process approach

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    This work describes an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based solution that predicts product quality when applied to a continuous manufacturing process. The proposed solution uses process parameters and product quality measurements that are obtained from a production line. The work detailed herein is problem-driven, showing an application within one of the UK's foundation industries and identifying five key criteria an AI solution should ideally satisfy in continuous manufacturing applications; scalability, modularity, stable out-of-data performance, uncertainty quantification and robustness to unrepresentative data. The shortcomings, relative to these five criteria, of available AI approaches are discussed before a potential solution is presented. The proposed approach involves the application of a generalised product-of-expert Gaussian process whose noise model is constructed from a Dirichlet process. The ability of the model to fulfil the five key criteria and its performance when applied to the foundation industry case study is demonstrated

    External Validation of COOL-AF Scores in the Asian Pacific Heart Rhythm Society Atrial Fibrillation Registry.

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    BackgroundThe COOL-AF (Cohort of Antithrombotic Use and Optimal International Normalized Ratio Levels in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) risk scores for death, bleeding, and thromboembolic events (TEs) were derived from the COOL-AF cohort from Thailand and require external validation.ObjectivesThe authors sought to externally validate the COOL-AF scores in the APHRS (Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society) registry and to compare their performance in the ESC-EHRA (European Society of Cardiology-European Heart Rhythm Association) EORP-AF (EURObservational Research Programme in Atrial Fibrillation) General Long-Term Registry.MethodsWe studied 3,628 APHRS and 8,825 EORP-AF patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analyses were used to test the predictive value of COOL-AF scores and to compared them with the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores.ResultsPatients in the EORP-AF were older, had a higher prevalence of male sex, and were at higher thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risk than APHRS patients. After 1 year of follow-up in APHRS and EORP-AF, the following events were recorded: 87 (2.4%) and 435 (4.9%) death for any causes, 37 (1.0%) and 111 (1.3%) major bleeding, and 25 (0.7%) and 109 (1.2%) TEs, respectively. In APHRS, the COOL-AF scores showed moderate-to-good predictive value for all-cause mortality (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.71-0.83), major bleeding (AUC: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.60-0.76), and TEs (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.51-0.71), and were similar to the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores. In EORP-AF, the predictive value of COOL-AF for all-cause mortality (AUC: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.65-0.70) and major bleeding (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.60-0.62) was modest and lower than in APHRS. In EORP-AF, the COOL-AF score for TE was inferior to the CHA2DS2-VASc score.ConclusionsThe COOL-AF risk scores may be an easy tool to identify Asian patients with AF at risk for death and major bleeding and performs better in Asian than in European patients with AF. (Clinical Survey on the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation in Asia [AF-Registry]; NCT04807049)

    Literary Realism and Mental Breakdown

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    Simultaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering with a Kerr Gate for Fluorescence Suppression.

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    The combination of surface-enhanced and Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy for the enhancement of the Raman signal and suppression of fluorescence is reported. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active gold substrates were demonstrated for the expansion of the surface generality of optical Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy, broadening its applicability to the study of analytes that show a weak Raman signal in highly fluorescent media under (pre)resonant conditions. This approach is highlighted by the well-defined spectra of rhodamine 6G, Nile red, and Nile blue. The Raman spectra of fluorescent dyes were obtained only when SERS-active substrates were used in combination with the Kerr gate. To achieve enhancement of the weaker Raman scattering, Au films with different roughnesses or Au-core-shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) were used. The use of SHINs enabled measurement of fluorescent dyes on non-SERS-active, optically flat Au, Cu, and Al substrates

    Low Iodine Nutrition Knowledge in Chinese Breastfeeding Women despite Adequate Iodine Status

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    There has been a scarcity of evidence about iodine nutrition knowledge among women during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to determine women’s iodine knowledge and the relationship between knowledge and iodine status during pregnancy and lactation. Women were recruited from a hospital in the western part of China in the third trimester of pregnancy and followed until the end of the first week of lactation. The women’s iodine status was measured by their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and an iodine-specific, validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Iodine nutrition knowledge was assessed using an iodine nutrition knowledge questionnaire. A total of 200 women (mean age of 29.0 ± 4.2 years) completed the whole study. The majority of the women did not consume enough iodine during both pregnancy and lactation (231.89 vs. 237.26 µg/day). The overall mean iodine knowledge scores in our sample of women during pregnancy and lactation were 4.77 and 4.87, indicating low iodine knowledge. The use of iodized salt and a higher education level were significantly associated with an increased iodine knowledge score. In conclusion, this study reported poor iodine nutrition knowledge in women, highlighting a public health concern. Therefore, the iodine knowledge of women should be improved, possibly via maternal health campaigns to avoid the consequences of iodine deficiency disorders in newborns.</jats:p

    Interspecific competition between ants and African honeybees (<scp><i>Apis mellifera scutellata</i></scp>) may undermine the effectiveness of elephant beehive–deterrents in Africa

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    AbstractBeehive deterrents are commonly used to mitigate human–elephant conflict and protect woody vegetation. To ensure hive activity, reduce abscondment risks, and maintain deterrent effectiveness, resident bee colonies require supplementary feeding during periods of low resource availability. However, our study found that ants frequently consume the supplementary feed in open feeders intended for bees. Anoplolepis custodiens was the most numerically dominant species that excluded bees from the feeders, followed by Camponotus and Crematogaster spp. With higher ant abundance, the predicted probability of zero bees being present at feeders increased up to 82%. This competition may undermine the efficacy of beehive deterrents as a conflict mitigation tool. We developed a simple and effective ant exclusion method that raised the overall predicted probability of bees' presence at supplementary feeding stations from 32% to 68%. Our findings suggest that innovative solutions to exclude ants from supplementary feed may improve the implementation and success of this conflict mitigation method across Africa.</jats:p

    Morphology and size effect of ceria on methanol oxidation in non-thermal plasma

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    The morphology effect and size effect of Ceria (CeO2) on methanol oxidation in non-thermal plasma (NTP) system were investigated. CeO2-Rod and CeO2-Cube with individual three sizes were synthesized and presented strong morphology-dependent and size-dependent activity, namely, CeO2-rod catalyst exhibited superior performance than CeO2-Cube, while each of them showed improved catalytic activity as the size reduced. Various characteristic methods showed that CeO2-Rod in smaller size possesses more surface adsorbed oxygen species than CeO2-Cube. Further experiments confirmed that the dependence of catalytic activity on CeO2 morphologies and CeO2 sizes was derived from their ozone utilization. To further investigate the difference of surface reaction pathways between the catalysts, in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments were conducted and the results showed that the methanol adsorption behavior and oxidation process on catalyst surface differ in CeO2 morphologies


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