Anglia Ruskin Research Online

    Promotion of professional quality of life through reducing fears of compassion and compassion fatigue: Application of the Compassionate Mind Model to Specialist Community Public Health Nurses (Health Visiting) training

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    Aims and Objectives: To identify whether a Compassionate Mind Model‐based curriculum reduces students’ perceived fears of compassion and improves their professional well‐being. Background: Enabling compassion is mandatory within nurse education but evidencing it is challenging. Research suggests that application of the Compassionate Mind Model might reduce students’ fears of compassion and also decrease compassion fatigue. This study reports outcomes of a post‐registration curriculum based on that model for training Specialist Community Public Health Nurses (Health Visiting). Design: A quantitative, prospective evaluation of a 12‐month training course for Health Visiting students. Reporting was guided by the STROBE checklist for observational studies. Methods: Fears of compassion scales were applied at course start (time 1), mid‐point (time 2; +6 months) and end (time 3; +12 months) to evaluate fears of compassion of 26 post‐registration student Health Visitors (81% of course cohort) who provided data at all three points. The Professional Quality of Life tool was administered simultaneously to evaluate compassion satisfaction and burnout/secondary traumatic stress (compassion fatigue). Results: Between time 1 and time 3, mean fears of compassion scores decreased by 16.6‐48.5% (repeated measures analysis of variance); mid‐point scores were intermediary. At time 3, compassion satisfaction had increased slightly (+4.1%), negatively correlated with fears of compassion for self (r = −0.602; p = .001; n = 26) and fears of receiving compassion from others (r = −0.568; p = .002; n = 26). Burnout score decreased by 18.7%, correlated positively with fear of compassion for self (r = 0.493; p = .011; n = 26) and fear of receiving compassion from others (r = 0.615; p = .001; n = 26). Secondary traumatic stress score decreased by 16.5% but was not correlated with any fear of compassion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that application of the Compassionate Mind Model might reduce practitioners’ fears of compassion linked to a decrease in risk of compassion fatigue. Relevance to clinical practice: The Compassionate Mind Model could provide an effective vehicle to promote compassion and nurse well‐being

    Perceptions of physiotherapists of their role in reducing pain and increasing, function, strength and flexibility in patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

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    Study objectives: The purpose of this focus group study was to establish the physiotherapy treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in North-West Wales. In addition the study aimed to report the barriers that stopped physiotherapists from increasing strength and flexibility and the contradictions of physiotherapists’ beliefs regarding their practice. Methods: The investigation was based on specific and priori designed questions. Two focus groups were conducted, where physiotherapists discussed the results of a feasibility study conducted in their department. 11 hypotheses discussed whilst 13 evidence statements reported by the merger of the answers to the hypotheses. A level of consensus was described using the moderator’s notes. Results: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome physiotherapy works; not through strength and flexibility but through pain and function improvement. However, this practice often only has a short-term effect. Conclusions: Group classes and better education on the importance of specific exercises and self-managing should be researched whilst the long-term effect of these treatment components should also be assessed

    Combating Cyber Dependent Crimes: The Legal Framework in the UK

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    Computer crimes and digital investigations comprise a substantial part of criminal policy, law and practice as information becomes the cornerstone of global economy. Innovative ways of attacking, exploiting and interfering with computer and communication technologies are regularly emerging, posing increasing threats to the society, economy and security. It is essential that in tackling cybercrime the right legal framework of offences is in place and that there is clarity in how the powers that are used to investigate cybercrime interact with the offences designed to catch cyber criminals. This paper reviews the current legal framework to cyber dependent crimes in the UK, including its recent amendments, and highlights areas that remain problematic and in need of attention from policymakers

    An Investigation of Structure, Flexibility and Function Variables that Discriminate Asymptomatic Foot Types

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    It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18–77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however 5 terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type

    Adjusting to Retirement from Sport: Narratives of Former Competitive Rhythmic Gymnasts

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    This study used narrative inquiry to understand the retirement experiences of rhythmic gymnasts. Eight female former competitive gymnasts (M age = 24.5, SD = 8.33) each participated in four life-history interviews. Following dialogical narrative analysis, three narrative typologies were outlined: Entangled Narrative, Going Forward Narrative, and Making Sense Narrative. The entangled narrative shows an individual with a monological athletic identity, who is unable to develop a new identity following her retirement to the detriment of her well-being, and wishes to return to being a gymnast. The going-forward narrative describes those former gymnasts who were able to develop multiple identities during their gymnastics career, and are now flourishing in their life post-retirement. The making-sense narrative is an emergent narrative, which transcends the previous two narratives. Findings expand narrative research by providing new narrative resources to understand the experience of retirement from gymnastics. These narrative resources might assist gymnasts to expand their narrative repertoire by raising awareness of different narratives available in their culture

    A systematic review of controlled trials on visual stress using Intuitive Overlays or the Intuitive Colorimeter

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    Claims that coloured filters aid reading date back 200 years and remain controversial. Some claims, for example, that more than 10% of the general population and 50% of people with dyslexia would benefit from coloured filters lack sound evidence and face validity. Publications with such claims typically cite research using methods that have not been described in the scientific literature and lack a sound aetiological framework. Notwithstanding these criticisms, some researchers have used more rigorous selection criteria and methods of prescribing coloured filters that were developed at a UK Medical Research Council unit and which have been fully described in the scientific literature. We review this research and disconfirm many of the more extreme claims surrounding this topic. This literature indicates that a minority subset of dyslexics (circa 20%) may have a condition described as visual stress which most likely results from a hyperexcitability of the visual cortex. Visual stress is characterised by symptoms of visual perceptual distortions, headaches, and eyestrain when viewing repetitive patterns, including lines of text. This review indicates that visual stress is distinct from, although sometimes co-occurs with, dyslexia. Individually prescribed coloured filters have been shown to improve reading performance in people with visual stress, but are unlikely to influence the phonological and memory deficits associated with dyslexia and therefore are not a treatment for dyslexia. This review concludes that larger and rigorous randomised controlled trials of interventions for visual stress are required. Improvements in the diagnosis of the condition are also a priority

    Takeover law to protect shareholders: increasing efficiency or merely redistributing gains?

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    We construct a dynamic takeover law index using hand-collected data on legal provisions and empirically examine the effect of takeover regulation to protect shareholders on shareholder wealth for bidders and targets in a multi-country setting. We find that a stricter takeover law increases combined wealth for bidders and targets, which suggests that stronger shareholder protection in the takeover bid process increases the efficiency of the takeover market. Contrary to our hypothesis, results show that stricter takeover law does not hurt bidders. Its effect on target announcement returns and takeover premiums is significantly positive and economically large. Our findings suggest that the mandatory bid rule and ownership disclosure increase synergistic gains in takeovers, whilst the fair-price rule and squeeze-out rights may reduce combined gains. Further results show that increased overall gains can be explained by greater competition in the market for corporate control and a shorter time to successful completion of a takeover under stricter takeover law

    Integration of resilience and sustainability: from theory to application

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    Purpose – This study aims to explore the challenges associated with the integration of resilience and sustainability, and propose a workable solution that ensures resilient and sustainable buildings. Recent research outcomes suggest that the number of natural hazards, both environmental and geophysical, will increase due to the effect of global warming. Various approaches have been investigated to reduce environmental degradation and to improve the physical resilience to natural hazards. However, most of these approaches are fragmented and when combined with cultural barriers, they often result into less-efficient assessment tools. Design/methodology/approach – The primary source of information used to develop this paper has been research publications, policy papers, reports and tool guidelines. A set of questions were developed to guide the review which was complemented with information distilled from the HFA 2005-2015 to develop an integration process to evaluate 10 international sustainability appraisal tools. Findings – The major finding of this research is that, from a technical point of view, resilience and sustainability could be integrated. However, it requires a long and thorough process with a multidisciplinary stakeholder team including technical, strategic, social and political parties. A combination of incentives and policies would support this process and help people work towards the integration. The Japanese model demonstrates a successful case in engaging stakeholders in the process which led to the development of a comprehensive appraisal tool, CASBEE®, where resilience and sustainability are integrated. Practical implications – Although data have been sought through literature review (i.e. secondary data), the research is expected to have significant impact, as it provides a clear theoretical foundation and methods for those wishing to integrate resilience within current sustainability appraisal tools or develop new tools. Social implications – This paper provides original concepts that are required to reduce fragmentation in the way resilience and sustainability are addressed. It sets up a new research agenda which has the potential to have a strong impact due the fact that sustainability and resilience are getting higher on the political priority scale. Originality/value – This paper provides findings of an original idea to reduce fragmentation in the way resilience and sustainability are addressed. It sets up a new research agenda which has the potential to have a strong impact due the fact that sustainability and resilience are getting higher on the political priority scale

    Quantification of vascular function changes under different emotion states: A pilot study

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    Recent studies have indicated that physiological parameters change with different emotion states. This study aimed to quantify the changes of vascular function at different emotion and sub-emotion states. Twenty young subjects were studied with their finger photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses recorded at three distinct emotion states: natural (1 minute), happiness and sadness (10 minutes for each). Within the period of happiness and sadness emotion states, two sub-emotion states (calmness and outburst) were identified with the synchronously recorded videos. Reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI), two widely used indices of vascular function, were derived from the PPG pulses to quantify their differences between three emotion states, as well as between two sub-emotion states. The results showed that, when compared with the natural emotion, RI and SI decreased in both happiness and sadness emotions. The decreases in RI were significant for both happiness and sadness emotions (both P< 0.01), but the decreases in SI was only significant for sadness emotion (P< 0.01). Moreover, for comparing happiness and sadness emotions, there was significant difference in RI (P< 0.01), but not in SI (P= 0.9). In addition, significant larger RI values were observed with the outburst sub-emotion in comparison with the calmness one for both happiness and sadness emotions (both P< 0.01) whereas significant larger SI values were observed with the outburst sub-emotion only in sadness emotion (P< 0.05). Moreover, gender factor hardly influence the RI and SI results for all three emotion measurements. This pilot study confirmed that vascular function changes with diffenrt emotion states could be quantified by the simple PPG measurement
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