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    71111 research outputs found

    Sailfish Habitat Utilization and Vertical Movements in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits

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    Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on 19 sailfish Istiophorus platypterus captured in the southern Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits between 2005 and 2007 on commercial pelagic longline gear (n = 18) and recreational rod-and-reel gear (n = 1). The data from three tags indicated mortality events and were excluded from subsequent analyses. All PSATs were programmed to collect pressure (depth), temperature, and light-level data for 10 d at approximately 90-s intervals. These transmitted point data subsequently allowed the reconstruction of vertical movement patterns. The remaining 16 PSAT data sets indicate that sailfish are primarily associated with the upper surface waters within the top 20m (75.7% of total time during the day versus 46.7% at night) but undertake numerous short-duration vertical movements below the local mixed layer to depths of 50–150 m, presumably to feed. Analyses of 2,279 individual vertical movements among all 16 tagged sailfish indicated two distinct types (short-duration “V” and longer-duration “U” movements) similar to those reported for white marlin Kajikia albida. Sailfish also exhibited movement type differences between diel periods (having higher proportions of V movements in daytime), suggesting directed foraging at depth. Although short-duration movement to depths by these tagged fish contribute a small percentage of the total time at depth, these depths overlap with themonitored shallow-set pelagic longline gear depths actively targeting swordfish by the vessel in the local fishery. These results suggest that time-at-depth histograms alone may be insufficient to capture feeding motivations at depth and, therefore, true interaction potentials between individual sailfish and pelagic longline gear


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    The Statistics of Natural Shapes in Modern Coral Reef Landscapes

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    Spatial heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of modern and ancient depositional settings, and the scaling of many carbonate environments has been shown to follow power function distributions. The difficulty in obtaining information on the horizontal persistence of sedimentary lithotopes at the basin scale has, however, hampered evaluation of this fact over larger geographic areas. In recent years, large‐scale maps of reef facies derived from remotely sensed data have become widely available, allowing for an analysis of reef‐scale map products from 26 sites spread through four reef provinces, covering \u3e7000 km2 of shallow‐water habitat in the U.S. territorial Pacific. For each site, facies maps were decomposed to polygons describing the perimeter of patches of differing sedimentologic/benthic character. A suite of geospatial metrics quantifying unit shape, fractal dimension, and frequency‐area relations was applied to investigate the intra‐ and intersite variability. The spatial architecture of these reef sites displays robust fractal properties over an extended range of scales with remarkable consistency between provinces. These results indicate the possibility of extrapolating information from large to small scales in various depositional environments

    Transforming Educational Leadership Preparation: Starting with Ourselves

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    To lead for social justice, scholars have maintained aspiring leaders should examine their own values and beliefs that dictate, to a great extent, their day-to-day decision-making and responsibilities. To do so requires faculty to examine themselves before they can prepare leaders for social justice. The purpose of this paper is to engage others with similar interests toward creating and/or improving programs designed to prepare leaders for social justice. Serving as a source of data and method of analysis, this duoethnography chronicles the life histories of two faculty members working in different leadership programs to reveal how their understanding of diversity and social justice has been formed over the course of their lives. Sharing stories, they dialogically critiqued and questioned each other, challenging one another to reconceptualize beliefs and meanings about their lived experiences. Duoethnography has the potential to transform faculty’s conceptions of diversity and social justice as well as promote empathy, compassion and understanding. When trust is established, faculty can take risks, ask tough questions, reveal vulnerabilities, exchange uncensored comments, and challenge deficit thinking. Duoethnography can be a valuable tool for faculty development. The authors question, however, whether faculty would be willing to employ duoethnography to explore their beliefs about diversity and increase their knowledge of social justice. Due to a perceived lack of trust, power differences, fear of uncovering biases, engaging in conflict, and/or denial of tenure and promotion, they question whether faculty would be willing to engage in this methodology

    The International Criminal Court And The Future Of Legal Accountability

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    With unexpected speed, the International Criminal Court has become a reality

    MHC Class I Molecules and Progression to AIDS

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    Accounting for Multiple Comparisons in a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS)

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    Background As we enter an era when testing millions of SNPs in a single gene association study will become the standard, consideration of multiple comparisons is an essential part of determining statistical significance. Bonferroni adjustments can be made but are conservative due to the preponderance of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic markers, and permutation testing is not always a viable option. Three major classes of corrections have been proposed to correct the dependent nature of genetic data in Bonferroni adjustments: permutation testing and related alternatives, principal components analysis (PCA), and analysis of blocks of LD across the genome. We consider seven implementations of these commonly used methods using data from 1514 European American participants genotyped for 700,078 SNPs in a GWAS for AIDS. Results A Bonferroni correction using the number of LD blocks found by the three algorithms implemented by Haploview resulted in an insufficiently conservative threshold, corresponding to a genome-wide significance level of α = 0.15 - 0.20. We observed a moderate increase in power when using PRESTO, SLIDE, and simpleℳ when compared with traditional Bonferroni methods for population data genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in European Americans (α = 0.05 thresholds between 1 × 10-7 and 7 × 10-8). Conclusions Correcting for the number of LD blocks resulted in an anti-conservative Bonferroni adjustment. SLIDE and simpleℳ are particularly useful when using a statistical test not handled in optimized permutation testing packages, and genome-wide corrected p-values using SLIDE, are much easier to interpret for consumers of GWAS studies

    Emerging Viruses in the Felidae: Shifting Paradigms

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    The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids

    Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates the Origin of the Extinct Caspian Tiger and Its Relationship to the Amur Tiger

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    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented


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