University of East Anglia digital repository

    Vidya: Theatre as development

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    Antibacterial and norfloxacin potentiation activities of Ocimum americanum L. against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Staphylococcus species are among the most common resistant bacteria associated with the major cause of human ailments. The crude methanol extract from Ocimum americanum (OA) leaf was tested alone or in combination with norfloxacin (NOR) against strains of Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution assay. The cytotoxicity of the OA extract was also evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reagent assay on a HepG2 hepatocarcinomal cell line. While the plant extract exhibited a mild to poor antibacterial activity against our panel of bacteria, the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin at one-quarter MIC was enhanced by 2–4 fold in the presence of one-half MIC of OA extract against SA-1199B that over expresses the NorA efflux pump and MRSA-274829. These positive interactions were confirmed using a time-killing test; the combination therapy remarkably reduced the bacterial count of SA1199B and MRSA274829 ranging from a 6.0–4.2-log10-CFU/mL, after 24 h incubation. The OA extract strongly depleted DPPH* (IC50: 146.5 μg/mL), LOI (152 μg/mL), PGI (47.6 μg/mL) and FRAP (122.75 μmolFe(II)/g) possibly due to its richness in phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the OA extract showed a non-toxic effect on the HepG2 cells having an IC50 value of 378.0 μg/mL. These findings therefore support the folkloric use of Ocimum americanum at least in part for the treatment of infectious and free radical stress-related diseases

    Identification issues in some double-index models for non-negative data

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    We highlight a subtle identification problem that afflicts models for non-negative data in which the conditional expectation is specified as the product of a logit and an exponential function. The results are illustrated with an empirical model for medical expenditures

    Tide of Fortune: A Family Tale

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    Comparison of the emergent behavior of a complex ecosystem model in two ocean general circulation models

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    A state-of-the-art complex marine ecosystem model, PlankTOM5.2, simulating the distribution of five plankton functional types (PFTs; mixed phytoplankton, diatoms, coccolithophores, micro and mesozooplankton), was implemented separately in two medium resolution (order 1°) global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), NEMO and OCCAM. In each case, identical formulations and parameter values were used in the ecosystem model, as well as the same biogeochemical forcing (photosynthetically active radiation and input of nutrients by atmospheric dust at the ocean surface) and initial conditions. The two physical models were forced with essentially the same surface boundary conditions, subject to interpolation between the two model grids, and simulations were undertaken for years 1990-1994. Sensitivity of the ecosystem model and associated biogeochemical fields was assessed with respect to differences in the ocean physics of the two OGCMs. Globally integrated bulk properties, notably annual mean primary production and total phytoplankton biomass, were similar in each case (although export showed regional differences between the models), as well as being generally consistent with available observations. In contrast, predicted distributions of individual PFTs varied markedly between the two simulations. Diatoms and microzooplankton were for example predicted to dominate in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Oceans in OCCAM because of relatively strong mixing which supplied increased nutrients that favoured diatom production and which also increased the mortality of their main predators, the mesozooplankton, which struggled to recover their numbers over winter as phytoplankton were depleted. In NEMO, lower mixing led to a community structure in which mixed phytoplankton and mesozooplankton were the main PFTs in the same areas. Regions of dominance by coccolithophores and mixed phytoplankton were predicted in the tropics, the former group being more extensive in the subtropics in NEMO, with distributions depending primarily on the size and extent of upwelling and downwelling regions predicted by the OGCMs. Results highlight the need for accuracy both when formulating the equations for, and parameterising, PFTs in models, and moreover in the representation of the physico-chemical environment

    A comparison of large scale changes in surface humidity over land in observations and CMIP3 general circulation models

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    Observed changes in the HadCRUH global land surface specific humidity and CRUTEM3 surface temperature from 1973 to 1999 are compared to CMIP3 archive climate model simulations with 20th Century forcings. Observed humidity increases are proportionately largest in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in winter. At the largest spatio-temporal scales moistening is close to the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of the saturated specific humidity (~7% K -1). At smaller scales in water-limited regions, changes in specific humidity are strongly inversely correlated with total changes in temperature. Conversely, in some regions increases are faster than implied by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The range of climate model specific humidity seasonal climatology and variance encompasses the observations. The models also reproduce the magnitude of observed interannual variance over all large regions. Observed and modelled trends and temperature-humidity relationships are comparable except for the extratropical Southern Hemisphere where observations exhibit no trend but models exhibit moistening. This may arise from: long-term biases remaining in the observations; the relative paucity of observational coverage; or common model errors. The overall degree of consistency of anthropogenically forced models with the observations is further evidence for anthropogenic influence on the climate of the late 20th century

    Rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: a multicentre randomised controlled study (the Getting out of the House Study)

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    One-third of stroke patients are dependent on others to get outside their homes. This can cause people to become housebound, leading to increased immobility, poor health, isolation and misery. There is some evidence that outdoor mobility rehabilitation can reduce these limitations

    Peer-level multiple source feedback for fitness to practice

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