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    Magnetotransport Properties and Subband Structure of the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in the Inversion Layer of Hg1-xCdxTe Bicrystals

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    The electronic and magnetotransport properties of conduction electrons in the grain boundary interface of p-type Hg1-xCdxTe bicrystals are investigated. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a two-dimensional degenerate n-type inversion layer in the vicinity of the grain boundary. The observed quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistivity result from a superposition of the Shubnikov-de Haas effect in several occupied electric subbands. The occupation of higher subbands is presumable depending on the total carrier density ns of the inversion layer. Electron densities, subband energies, and effective masses of these electric subbands in samples with different total densities are determined. The effective masses of lower subbands are markedly different from the band edge values of the bulk material, their values decrease with decreasing electron density and converging to the bulk values at lower densities. This agrees with predictions of the triangular potential well model and a pronounced nonparabolicity of the energy bands in Hg1-xCdxTe. At high magnetic fields (B > 10 T) it is experimentally verified that the Hall resistivity xy is quantized into integer multiplies of h/e2

    Diffusion in the general theory of relativity

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    The Markovian diffusion theory in the phase space is generalized within the framework of the general theory of relativity. The introduction of moving orthonormal frame vectors both for the position as well the velocity space enables to bypass difficulties in the general relativistic stochastic calculus. The general relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space is derived both in the parametrization of phase space proper time and the coordinate time. The transformation of the obtained diffusion equation under hypersurface-preserving coordinate transformations is analyzed and diffusion in the expanding universe is studied. It is shown that the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem ensures that in the quasi-steady state regime the result of the derived diffusion equation is consistent with the kinetic theory in thermodynamic equilibrium.Comment: 10 pages, no figure

    On the origin of space

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    Within the framework of fractional calculus with variable order the evolution of space in the adiabatic limit is investigated. Based on the Caputo definition of a fractional derivative using the fractional quantum harmonic oscillator a model is presented, which describes space generation as a dynamic process, where the dimension dd of space evolves smoothly with time in the range 0 <= d(t) <=3, where the lower and upper boundaries of dimension are derived from first principles. It is demonstrated, that a minimum threshold for the space dimension is necessary to establish an interaction with external probe particles. A possible application in cosmology is suggested.Comment: 14 pages 3 figures, some clarifications adde

    Classification and Characterization of rationally elliptic manifolds in low dimensions

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    We give a characterization of closed, simply connected, rationally elliptic 6-manifolds in terms of their rational cohomology rings and a partial classification of their real cohomology rings. We classify rational, real and complex homotopy types of closed, simply connected, rationally elliptic 7-manifolds. We give partial results in dimensions 8 and 9.Comment: 23 pages; extended Section 2, revised Section 5 and several minor revision
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