3,071 research outputs found

    Two-Time Correlation Functions: Stochastic and Conventional Quantum Mechanics

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    An investigation of two-time correlation functions is reported within the framework of (i) Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and (ii) conventional Heisenberg-Schr\"odinger Quantum Mechanics. The spectral functions associated with the two-time electric dipole correlation functions are worked out in detail for the case of the hydrogen atom. While the single time averages are identical for stochastic and conventional quantum mechanics, differences arise in the two approaches for multiple time correlation functions.Comment: Version published by the Eur. Phys. J. B. Few references added. Minor typos correcte

    Classical Vs Quantum Probability in Sequential Measurements

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    We demonstrate in this paper that the probabilities for sequential measurements have features very different from those of single-time measurements. First, they cannot be modelled by a classical stochastic process. Second, they are contextual, namely they depend strongly on the specific measurement scheme through which they are determined. We construct Positive-Operator-Valued measures (POVM) that provide such probabilities. For observables with continuous spectrum, the constructed POVMs depend strongly on the resolution of the measurement device, a conclusion that persists even if we consider a quantum mechanical measurement device or the presence of an environment. We then examine the same issues in alternative interpretations of quantum theory. We first show that multi-time probabilities cannot be naturally defined in terms of a frequency operator. We next prove that local hidden variable theories cannot reproduce the predictions of quantum theory for sequential measurements, even when the degrees of freedom of the measuring apparatus are taken into account. Bohmian mechanics, however, does not fall in this category. We finally examine an alternative proposal that sequential measurements can be modelled by a process that does not satisfy the Kolmogorov axioms of probability. This removes contextuality without introducing non-locality, but implies that the empirical probabilities cannot be always defined (the event frequencies do not converge). We argue that the predictions of this hypothesis are not ruled out by existing experimental results (examining in particular the "which way" experiments); they are, however, distinguishable in principle.Comment: 56 pages, latex; revised and restructured. Version to appear in Found. Phy

    TOpic: rare and special cases, the real "Strange cases"

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    Introduction: The bladder hernia represents approximately 1-3% of all inguinal hernias, where patients aged more than 50 years have a higher incidence (10%). Many factors contribute to the development of a bladder hernia, including the presence of a urinary outlet obstruction causing chronic bladder distention, the loss of bladder tone, pericystitis, the perivesical bladder fat protrusion and the obesity

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+‚Üíőľ+őĹW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W‚ąí‚Üíőľ‚ąíőĹW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Synaptoimmunology - Roles in health and disease

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    Abstract Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in normal and pathological situations. In addition, novel immunological functions are emerging for proteins typically expressed at synapses. Under normal conditions, release of inflammatory mediators generally represents an adaptive and regulated response of the brain to immune signals. On the other hand, when immune challenge becomes prolonged and/or uncontrolled, the consequent inflammatory response leads to maladaptive synaptic plasticity and brain disorders. In this review, we will first provide a summary of the cell signaling pathways in neurons and immune cells. We will then examine how immunological mechanisms might influence synaptic function, and in particular synaptic plasticity, in the healthy and pathological CNS. A better understanding of neuro-immune system interactions in brain circuitries relevant to neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders should provide specific biomarkers to measure the status of the neuroimmunological response and help design novel neuroimmune-targeted therapeutics

    Measurement of the Lifetime Difference in the B_s^0 System

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    We present a study of the decay B_s^0 -> J/psi phi We obtain the CP-odd fraction in the final state at time zero, R_perp = 0.16 +/- 0.10 (stat) +/- 0.02 (syst), the average lifetime of the (B_s, B_sbar) system, tau (B_s^0) =1.39^{+0.13}_{-0.16} (stat) ^{+0.01}_{-0.02} (syst) ps, and the relative width difference between the heavy and light mass eigenstates, Delta Gamma/Gamma = (Gamma_L - Gamma_H)/Gamma =0.24^{+0.28}_{-0.38} (stat) ^{+0.03}_{-0.04} (syst). With the additional constraint from the world average of the B_s^0$lifetime measurements using semileptonic decays, we find tau (B_s^0)= 1.39 +/- 0.06 ~ps and Delta Gamma/\Gamma = 0.25^{+0.14}_{-0.15}. For the ratio of the B_s^0 and B^0 lifetimes we obtain tau(B_s^0)/tau(B^0)} = 0.91 +/- 0.09 (stat) +/- 0.003 (syst).Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. FERMILAB-PUB-05-324-

    Measurement of Semileptonic Branching Fractions of B Mesons to Narrow D** States