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    a review of Involutive category theory by Yau, Donald

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    a review of Lawvere theories and C-systems by Fiore, Marcelo; Voevodsky, Vladimir

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    a review of Polynomials as spans by Street, Ross

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    Salt taste perception and blood pressure levels in population-based samples : the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS)

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    To examine the associations of salt perception with salt intake and blood pressure levels in general populations, we performed a cross-sectional study in two communities where salt intake level is different, Akita and Osaka in Japan. Taste perception (detection for certain taste and recognition for salt taste) was determined using a Na-impregnated test strip for 1024 Akita and 1199 Osaka adults aged 30–74 years. The proportions of detection for 0·1 % salt were 61, 62, 79, and 79 % in Akita men, Osaka men, Akita women and Osaka women, respectively. The corresponding proportions of not recognising of 1·6 % salt taste (>1·6 %) were 34, 30, 16 and 21 %. Detection threshold was higher in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 60–74 years, and recognition threshold was lower in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 30–59 and 60–74 years. The high detection (≥0·4 %) and recognition (>1·6 %) thresholds of salt taste were associated with higher salt intake scores for Akita men aged 30–59 years, whose detection and recognition thresholds tended be positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) after adjustment for potential confounders. Among Akita elderly men, detection threshold tended to be positively associated with SBP and DBP, while among Akita middle-aged women, recognition threshold was associated with SBP. In conclusion, the high thresholds of salt perception were inversely associated with salt intake for Akita middle-aged men and with blood pressure levels for Akita middle-aged and elderly men and middle-aged women

    Manganese intake from foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes

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    BackgroundDespite the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of manganese, only one recent Chinese study has investigated the association between dietary manganese intake and type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe recruited 19,862 Japanese men and women in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. The participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the baseline survey (1988 = 1990) and a diabetes history at both baseline and 5-year surveys. We calculated the odds ratios (95 % CIs) of the 5-year cumulative incidence of self-reported physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes according to quartiles of dietary manganese intake.ResultsWithin the 5-year period, we confirmed 530 new cases of type 2 diabetes (263 in men and 267 in women) with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 2.7 % (3.6 % in men and 2.1 % in women). Higher manganese intake was inversely associated with the women’s but not the men’s cumulative risk of type 2 diabetes over the 5-year period. In a full model adjusted for the participants’ characteristics, diabetes risk factors and a wide range of dietary variables, the multivariable odds ratios (95 %CIs) of type 2 diabetes across the increasing quartiles of manganese intake (Q1 to Q4) were 1.00, 0.97 (0.65, 1.43), 1.04 (0.67, 1.61) and 1.10 (0.64, 1.92), p-trend = 0.66 among men and 1.00, 0.74 (0.51, 1.06), 0.62 (0.41, 0.94) and 0.53 (0.31, 0.88), p-trend = 0.01 among women. The association was observed mainly for those with low iron intake in women, particularly premenopausal women.ConclusionStrong inverse associations between dietary manganese intake and risk of type 2 diabetes were observed in women but not men

    〈論文〉ニッチトップ型䞭小䌁業の地方移転ず囜内・海倖事業展開 : 株匏䌚瀟 協立補䜜所の事䟋分析

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    本論文は、地域経枈の再生あるいは産業の空掞化を回避する䞀翌を担うこずが期埅されるニッチトップ型䞭小䌁業の囜内および海倖における事業展開に぀いお経営史的に怜蚎するこずを目的ずする。特に本論文では、日本を代衚する䌁業城䞋町ずしお発展しおきた日立の呚蟺地域筑西垂に移転し、その埌同地を拠点ずしお掻動する協立補䜜所を事䟋ずしお取り䞊げる。その分析により、 1 1970幎代初頭に東京から地方ぞの工堎移転を契機ずしお、油圧郚品の䞀貫加工䜓制を敎備するこずで同瀟発展の基盀を圢成したこず、 2  1990幎代以降、油圧機噚のメむンスプヌル垂堎においおニッチトップの座を獲埗し、ニッチトップ型䞭小䌁業ぞず転身するずずもに、 3 油圧郚品の加工のみならず、補品の組立を新たに手がけるこずで事業の倚角化ず取匕関係の拡倧をはかり、それたでの䞀瀟専属的な事業展開からの転換を実珟したこず、 4 同じ時期に䞭囜䞊海に珟地工堎を蚭立するこずで、日本囜内における生産拡匵の制玄を克服するずずもに、珟地での新たな取匕関係を圢成したこず、 5 以䞊の展開により、同瀟は、バブル厩壊以降の倖郚環境の倉化に適応しただけでなく、それ以前より高い䌁業成長を実珟するに至ったこずを明らかにした。The purpose of this paper is to examine the business development of the niche top type small and medium sized enterprises, which are expected to take revitalization of regional economies or a role avoiding deindustrialization. In this paper, we focus on the case of Kyoritsu Seisakusho Co., Ltd. KS based in Chikusei City, Japan and clarify as follows: [1] KS formed a base of the company development by making an integrated production system after transferring the factory from Tokyo to the local city in the early 1970s. [2] KS got a position of the niche top in the main spool market of the hydraulic equipment parts after the 1990s, and [3] it realized switch from business relationship to depend on the specific company by newly entering the assembling business of the products as well as the processing of the hydraulic equipment part. [4] KS also overcame limitation of the production expansion in Japan and formed new business relationships in Shanghai, China by establishing a local factory there at the same time. [5] By these results, KS achieved the company growth that was higher than it past as well as adapted to the changes in the external environment after the collapse of Japanese bubble economy

    Experimental characterization and performance improvement evaluation of an electromagnetic transducer utilizing a tuned inerter

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    This research reports on the experimental verification of an enhanced energy conversion device utilizing a tuned inerter called a tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducer (TIMET). The TIMET consists of a motor, a rotational mass, and a tuning spring. The motor and the rotational mass are connected to a ball screw and the tuning spring interfaced to the ball screw is connected to the vibrating structure. Thus, vibration energy of the structure is absorbed as electrical energy by the motor. Moreover, the amplified inertial mass can be realized by rotating relatively small physical masses. Therefore, by designing the tuning spring stiffness and the inertial mass appropriately, the motor can rotate more effectively due to the resonance effect, leading to more effective energy generation. The authors designed a prototype of the TIMET and conducted tests to validate the effectiveness of the tuned inerter for electromagnetic transducers. Through excitation tests, the property of the hysteresis loops produced by the TIMET is investigated. Then a reliable analytical model is developed employing a curve fitting technique to simulate the behavior of the TIMET and to assess the power generation accurately. In addition, numerical simulation studies on a structure subjected to a seismic loading employing the developed model are conducted to show the advantages of the TIMET over a traditional electromagnetic transducer in both vibration suppression capability and energy harvesting efficiency

    第四次 団䜓の基瀎構造に関する調査 : 日本13垂区自治䌚・町内䌚など近隣䜏民組織に関する調査コヌドブック

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    東海倧孊プロゞェクト研究「QOL向䞊のための、日本ずアゞアにおける郜垂ガバナンスモデルの構築」 2019幎床21幎床研究報告

    Wave flume testing of an oscillating-body wave energy converter with a tuned inerter

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    In this study, the effectiveness of an oscillating-body WEC with a tuned inerter (TI) proposed by the authors is shown through wave flume testing. The TI mechanism consisting of a tuning spring, a rotational inertial mass, and a viscous damping component is able to increase energy absorption capability by taking advantage of the resonance effect of the rotational mass. This mechanism has been recently introduced for civil structures subjected to external loadings such as earthquakes and winds to decay vibration response immediately. The authors applied this mechanism to oscillating-body WECs and showed that the proposed WEC increased the power generation performance and broadened the effective frequency range without increasing the mass of the buoy itself through numerical simulation studies. To verify the validity of the proposed WEC experimentally, a small-scale prototype of the proposed device is designed and wave flume testing is carried out with various regular wave inputs of different frequencies. The results show that the WEC with the properly adjusted TI mechanism demonstrates better power generation performance compared to the conventional WEC over a wide range of wave frequencies

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