396 research outputs found

    The cometary composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides

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    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the Solar Nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface, seeding its early chemistry. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the Solar Nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01% of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can be readily explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry to form e.g. HCN and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity[3]. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in Solar Nebula analogues - protoplanetary disks around young stars - indicating that they survive disk formation or are reformed in situ. It has been hitherto unclear whether the same holds for more complex organic molecules outside of the Solar Nebula, since recent observations show a dramatic change in the chemistry at the boundary between nascent envelopes and young disks due to accretion shocks[8]. Here we report the detection of CH3CN (and HCN and HC3N) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. We find abundance ratios of these N-bearing organics in the gas-phase similar to comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. This implies that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the rich organic chemistry of the Solar Nebula was not unique.Comment: Definitive version of the manuscript is published in Nature, 520, 7546, 198, 2015. This is the author's versio

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) for the treatment of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS

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    BACKGROUND: This study reports on clinical data from an 8-week open-label study of 20 HIV-seropositive individuals, diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (DSM-IV), who were treated with SAM-e (S-Adenosylmethionine). SAM-e may be a treatment alternative for the management of depression in a population reluctant to add another "pill" or another set of related side effects to an already complex highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. METHODS: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess depressive symptomatology from 1,2,4,6 and 8 weeks after initiation of treatment with SAM-e. RESULTS: Data show a significant acute reduction in depressive symptomatology, as measured by both the HAM-D and the BDI instruments. CONCLUSIONS: SAM-e has a rapid effect evident as soon as week 1 (p < .001), with progressive decreases in depression symptom rating scores throughout the 8 week study

    Early changes within the lymphocyte population are associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in trauma patients

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    2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.JM was funded, in part, by the Royal College of Surgeons of England, The Phillip King Charitable Trust Research Fellowship and The National Institute of Health Research (NIHR)

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb‚ąí1 of ‚ąö s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Search for heavy neutral Higgs bosons produced in association with b-quarks and decaying into b-quarks at root s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector