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    96523 research outputs found

    Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

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    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found

    Towards enhanced optical sensor performance: SEIRA and SERS with plasmonic nanostars

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    We report the preparation and characterization of plasmonic chip-based systems comprising self-assembled gold nanostars at silicon substrates that enable concomitantly enhanced Raman (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; SERS) and mid-infrared (surface enhanced infrared reflection or absorption spectroscopy; SEIRA) spectral signatures. The high-aspect-ratio structure of gold nanostars provides an increased number of hot spots at their surface, which results in an electric field enhancement around the nanomaterial. Gold nanostars were immobilized at a silicon substrate via a thin gold layer, and α-ω-dimercapto polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG-SH) linkers. The Raman and IR spectra of crystal violet (CV) revealed a noticeable enhancement of the analyte vibrational signal intensity in SERS and SEIRA studies resulting from the presence of the nanostars. Enhancement factors of 2.5 × 103 and 2.3 × 103 were calculated in SERS considering the CV bands at 1374.9 cm-1 and 1181 cm-1, respectively; for SEIRA, an enhancement factor of 5.36 was achieved considering the CV band at 1585 cm-1

    Multi-kink collisions in the ϕ6 model

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    We study simultaneous collisions of two, three, and four kinks and antikinks of the ϕ6 model at the same spatial point. Unlike the ϕ4 kinks, the ϕ6 kinks are asymmetric and this enriches the variety of the collision scenarios. In our numerical simulations we observe both reflection and bound state formation depending on the number of kinks and on their spatial ordering in the initial configuration. We also analyze the extreme values of the energy densities and the field gradient observed during the collisions. Our results suggest that very high energy densities can be produced in multi-kink collisions in a controllable manner. Appearance of high energy density spots in multi-kink collisions can be important in various physical applications of the Klein-Gordon model

    On adaptive optimal prediction of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

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    This paper suggests predictors for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process based on the truncated estimators of parameters. For these estimators there are established the asymptotic and non-asymptotic properties with guaranteed accuracy. Strong consistency of the obtained estimators is proved. There are investigated asymptotic properties of the predictors and shown their optimality

    Review of supershort avalanche electron beam during nanosecond-pulse discharges in some gases

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    Supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) plays an important role in nanosecond-pulse discharges. This paper aims at reviewing experiments results on characteritics of SAEB and its spectra in different gases in nanosecond-pulse discharges. All the joint experiments were carried in the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In these experiments, the generation of a SAEB in SF6 in an inhomogeneous electric field was studied on three generators with pulse rise times of 0.3, 0.5 and ∼2 ns. Firstly, the comparison of SAEB parameters in SF6 with those obtained in other gases (air, nitrogen, argon, and krypton) is introduced. Secondly, the SAEB spectra in SF6 and air at pressures of 10 kPa (75 torr), and 0.1 MPa (750 torr) are reviewed and discussed. Finally, 1.5-D theoretical simulation of the supershort pulse of the fast electron beam in a coaxial diode filled with SF6 at atmospheric pressure is described. The simulation was carried out in the framework of hybrid model for discharge and runaway electron kinetics. The above research progress can provide better understanding of the investigation into the mechanism of nanosecond-pulse discharges

    Synthesis and luminescence of lead(II)-activated cadmium sulfide in poly(methyl methacrylate)

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    Optically transparent polymeric materials PMMA: Cd(Pb)S have been synthesized by polymerization of methyl methacrylate, which concurrently acts as a reaction medium for synthesis of metal sulfides, dispersion medium for the resulting colloidal solution forming during synthesis, and the base of compositions. Dependences of cadmium sulfide luminescence on the concentrations, concentration ratios of the initial compounds, reaction medium composition, and temperature have been established. The observed changes in the spectra are related to the introduction of lead(II) into compositions, complex formation on the surface of colloidal particles, and the effect of polar acetonitrile

    Analysis of the nBn-type barrier structures for infrared photodiode detectors

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    Modern trends in the technology of CdxHg1–xTe-based photosensitive barrier structures for the middle and far infrared bands, which can operate at near-room temperatures, are analyzed. Main approaches to solving the problem of increasing the photodiode-detector operating temperature have been considered and analyzed

    Mass media tests: socio-cultural aspect (based on advertising texts)

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