294 research outputs found

    Who Are The Planetarians? A Demographic Survey Of Planetarium - Based Astronomy Educators

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    Over the last 100 years since the planetarium was invented and began to spread across the planet, discipline-based planetarium education researchers have worked diligently to catalog what concepts are taught in the planetarium and what audiences learn when attending a planetarium show. What is not clearly known is precisely ‘who’ it is that are teaching astronomy in planetaria. Numerous small-scale studies give hints about who plantarians are, but the existing participant demographics provided shed precious little insight about them as broad field of professional experts. Knowing “who planetarians are” is critical to education researchers who need to know when they are studying planetarium educators who are more or less typical of most people in the field and when, instead, they are studying people who are unusual outliers and far less representative of the broader population. As a first step toward obtaining a glimpse of who planetarium educators are, a brief survey was broadly distributed through contemporary social media networks frequented by planetarium educators posing the question, “who are you?” The results from 61 respondents showed that 90% had undergraduate degrees, half of which were in physics or astronomy, and 38% hold graduate degrees. Additionally, only 8% have amateur astronomy or hobbyist backgrounds or any substantive K-12 classroom teaching experience. Perhaps unique to planetarium-based astronomy educators, 38% report having extensive backgrounds in theater and performance, These findings suggest that planetarium educators are a fundamentally different sort of individual than those who teach K-12 astronomy or do outreach as an amateur astronomer and, as such, perhaps have very different professional development requirements and expectations from those other astronomy-education related professional development consumers

    Transcriptional changes in the mammary gland during lactation revealed by single cell sequencing of cells from human milk.

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    Funder: Wellcome TrustUnder normal conditions, the most significant expansion and differentiation of the adult mammary gland occurs in response to systemic reproductive hormones during pregnancy and lactation to enable milk synthesis and secretion to sustain the offspring. However, human mammary tissue remodelling that takes place during pregnancy and lactation remains poorly understood due to the challenge of acquiring samples. We report here single-cell transcriptomic analysis of 110,744 viable breast cells isolated from human milk or non-lactating breast tissue, isolated from nine and seven donors, respectively. We found that human milk largely contains epithelial cells belonging to the luminal lineage and a repertoire of immune cells. Further transcriptomic analysis of the milk cells identified two distinct secretory cell types that shared similarities with luminal progenitors, but no populations comparable to hormone-responsive cells. Taken together, our data offers a reference map and a window into the cellular dynamics that occur during human lactation and may provide further insights on the interplay between pregnancy, lactation and breast cancer.UKRI-MRC project grant ((MR/S036059/1) UKRI-BBSRC project grant (BB/S006745/1) Breast Cancer Now Project Grant (2017MayPR907) CRUK Programme Foundation Award (DCRPGF\100010

    Preliminary Results on HAT-P-4, TrES-3, XO-2, and GJ 436 from the NASA EPOXI Mission

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    EPOXI (EPOCh + DIXI) is a NASA Discovery Program Mission of Opportunity using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft. The EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) Science Investigation will gather photometric time series of known transiting exoplanet systems from January through August 2008. Here we describe the steps in the photometric extraction of the time series and present preliminary results of the first four EPOCh targets.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of the 253rd IAU Symposium: "Transiting Planets", May 2008, Cambridge, M

    Noninvasive Vascular Images for Face Transplant Surgical Planning

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    Objective: Face transplantation replaces substantial defects with anatomically identical donor tissues; preoperative vascular assessment relies on noninvasive imaging to separate and characterize the external carotid vessels and branches. The objective is to describe and illustrate vascular considerations for face transplantation candidates. Methods: Novel noninvasive imaging using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging over 3 spatial dimensions plus time was developed and tested in 4 face transplant candidates. Precontrast images assessed bones and underlying metal. Contrast media was used to delineate and separate arteries from veins. For computed tomography, acquisition over multiple time points enabled the computation of tissue perfusion metrics. Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography was performed to separate arterial and venous phases. Results: The range of circulation times for the external carotid system was 6 to 14 seconds from arterial blush to loss of venous enhancement. Precontrast imaging provided a roadmap of bones and metal. Among the 4 patients, 3 had surgical clips, metal implants, or both within 1 cm of major vessels considered for surgery. Contrast-enhanced wide area detector computed tomographic data acquired in the axial mode separated these structures and provided arterial and venous images for planning the surgical anastomoses. Magnetic resonance imaging was able to distinguish between the large vessels from the external carotid systems. Conclusions: Vascular imaging maps are challenging in face transplantation because of the rapid circulation times and artifact from the initial injury, prior reconstructive attempts, or both. Nevertheless, face transplant candidates require high spatial and temporal resolution vascular imaging to determine those vessels appropriate for surgical anastomoses

    Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean

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    This paper presents the earliest evidence for the exploitation of lignite (brown coal) in Europe and sheds new light on the use of combustion fuel sources in the 2nd millennium BCE Eastern Mediterranean. We applied Thermal Desorption/Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Polarizing Microscopy to the dental calculus of 67 individuals and we identified clear evidence for combustion markers embedded within this calculus. In contrast to the scant evidence for combustion markers within the calculus samples from Egypt, all other individuals show the inhalation of smoke from fires burning wood identified as Pinaceae, in addition to hardwood, such as oak and olive, and/ or dung. Importantly, individuals from the Palatial Period at the Mycenaean citadel of Tiryns and the Cretan harbour site of Chania also show the inhalation of fire-smoke from lignite, consistent with the chemical signature of sources in the northwestern Peloponnese and Western Crete respectively. This first evidence for lignite exploitation was likely connected to and at the same time enabled Late Bronze Age Aegean metal and pottery production, significantly by both male and female individuals

    Latency Associated Peptide Has In Vitro and In Vivo Immune Effects Independent of TGF-β1

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    Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) binds TGF-β1, forming a latent complex. Currently, LAP is presumed to function only as a sequestering agent for active TGF-β1. Previous work shows that LAP can induce epithelial cell migration, but effects on leukocytes have not been reported. Because of the multiplicity of immunologic processes in which TGF-β1 plays a role, we hypothesized that LAP could function independently to modulate immune responses. In separate experiments we found that LAP promoted chemotaxis of human monocytes and blocked inflammation in vivo in a murine model of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTHR). These effects did not involve TGF-β1 activity. Further studies revealed that disruption of specific LAP-thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) interactions prevented LAP-induced responses. The effect of LAP on DTH inhibition depended on IL-10. These data support a novel role for LAP in regulating monocyte trafficking and immune modulation

    Standalone vertex finding in the ATLAS muon spectrometer

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    A dedicated reconstruction algorithm to find decay vertices in the ATLAS muon spectrometer is presented. The algorithm searches the region just upstream of or inside the muon spectrometer volume for multi-particle vertices that originate from the decay of particles with long decay paths. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using both a sample of simulated Higgs boson events, in which the Higgs boson decays to long-lived neutral particles that in turn decay to bbar b final states, and pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC during 2011

    Measurements of Higgs boson production and couplings in diboson final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC