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    The Open Data Potential for the Geospatial Characterisation of Building Stock on an Urban Scale: Methodology and Implementation in a Case Study

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    Energy renovation in buildings is one of the major challenges for the decarbonisation of the building stock. To effectively prioritise decision making regarding the adoption of the most efficient solutions and strategies, it is imperative to develop agile methods to determine the energy performance of buildings on an urban scale, in order to evaluate the impact of these improvements. In this regard, the data collection for feeding building energy models plays a key role in the accuracy and reliability of this issue, and the significant increase in recent years of available data from open data sources offers great potential in this respect. Thus, this study focuses on proposing a systematised and automated method for obtaining information from open data sources so as to obtain the most relevant geometric and thermal characteristics of residential buildings on an urban scale. The criteria for selecting the parameters to be obtained are based on their potential use as input data in different energy demand models aimed at assessing the energy performance of the building stock in a given area and, eventually, to evaluate the potential for improvement and the mitigation of different strategies. Geometric characterisation relies on obtaining and processing open data from cadastres to extract envelope surfaces categorised by orientation through QGIS (Free and Open Source Geographic Information System). For thermal characterisation, an automated process assigns different parameter-based information obtained from cadastral data, such as the year of construction. Finally, the applicability of the method is demonstrated through its implementation in the case study of Bilbao (Spain). The obtained results show that, although additional data should be collected when a detailed analysis of a building or building cluster has to be carried out, the existing open data can provide a first approximation, providing a first global view of the building stock in a region. It demonstrates the usability of the proposed method as an effective way to obtain and process these relevant data.The work presented in this paper was carried out within the EnePoMAP Project that was funded by “La Caixa” Foundation under the project code LCF/PR/SR20/52550013. The recruitment of the Author Cristina Villanueva-Díaz was funded by the European Union-Next Generation EU. The author Milagros Álvarez-Sanz is benefiting from the financial support of the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), through the Vice-Rectorate of Research’s Personnel Research Training Program (2020). The publication fees of the paper were funded by the organisation of the 14th edition of the International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Architecture and Urbanism (EESAP 14), through a prize awarded to the material of this publication in recognition of the best communication submitted to the congress

    TIC y cocreación de valor en B2B: la nueva forma de fidelización en el servicio

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    [EN] In today’s competitive environment, it is emphasised that business digitalisation is one of the most important strategies to deal with new market challenges. This article argues that technology is a driving force behind business relationships, showing the origins of new ways to achieve loyalty. Through a model which has been tested in a sample of 256 travel agencies, technology can facilitate coordination in the management of relationships between tourism companies, promoting value co-creation between suppliers and customers. Co-creation in turn maximises trust and commitment between organisations and lays the foundations for achievement of dual social and economic satisfaction, for client companies, which ultimately enhances their loyalty. This research contributes to the literature in the interorganizational context, showing quantitative evidence on how technology triggers a sequence of effects that, through value co-creation, trust, and commitment in the channel, between agents in the tourism field, trace a new route of relationships that leads to the achievement of dual satisfaction and loyalty. Additionally, the interrelationships between the two satisfactions are analysed, concluding the mediating effect of economic satisfaction between social satisfaction and loyalty.[ES] En el entorno competitivo actual, se insiste en que la digitalización empresarial es una de las estrategias más im-portantes para hacer frente a los nuevos retos del mercado. En este artículo se argumenta que la tecnología es una fuerza impulsora de las relaciones comerciales, que muestra el origen de nuevos caminos hacia la consecución de la lealtad. A través de un modelo que ha sido probado en una muestra de 256 agencias de viajes, la tecnología puede facilitar la coordinación en la gestión de las relaciones entre las empresas turísticas, promoviendo la co-creación de valor entre proveedores y clientes. A su vez, la co-creación maximiza la confianza y el compromiso entre las organizaciones y sienta las bases para la consecución de una doble satisfacción social y económica, para las empresas clientes, lo que en última instancia aumenta su lealtad. Esta investigación contribuye a la literatura en el contexto interorganizacional, mostrando evidencias cuantitativas sobre cómo la tecnología desencadena una secuencia de efectos que, a través de la co-creación de valor, la confianza y el compromiso en el canal, entre agentes del ámbito turístico, traza una nueva ruta de relaciones que conduce a la consecución de la doble satisfacción y lealtad. Además, se analizan las interrelaciones entre ambas satisfacciones, concluyendo el efecto mediador de la satisfacción económica entre la satisfacción social y la lealtad.This research has been developed within the framework of the project grant PID2020-112660RB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and the grant for consolidated re-search group AICO/2021/144 funded by the Conselleria d’Inno-vació, Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital of the Generalitat Valenciana

    Lateral Evasive Maneuver with Shared Control Algorithm: A Simulator Study

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    Shared control algorithms have emerged as a promising approach for enabling real-time driver automated system cooperation in automated vehicles. These algorithms allow human drivers to actively participate in the driving process while receiving continuous assistance from the automated system in specific scenarios. However, despite the theoretical benefits being analyzed in various works, further demonstrations of the effectiveness and user acceptance of these approaches in real-world scenarios are required due to the involvement of the human driver in the control loop. Given this perspective, this paper presents and analyzes the results of a simulator-based study conducted to evaluate a shared control algorithm for a critical lateral maneuver. The maneuver involves the automated system helping to avoid an oncoming motorcycle that enters the vehicle’s lane. The study’s goal is to assess the algorithm’s performance, safety, and user acceptance within this specific scenario. For this purpose, objective measures, such as collision avoidance and lane departure prevention, as well as subjective measures related to the driver’s sense of safety and comfort are studied. In addition, three levels of assistance (gentle, intermediate, and aggressive) are tested in two driver state conditions (focused and distracted). The findings have important implications for the development and execution of shared control algorithms, paving the way for their incorporation into actual vehicles.This research is supported by the EU Commission HADRIAN project. HADRIAN has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 875597. The publication is supported by the EU Commission Aware2All project, under grant agreement No 97878

    Endoperiodontal lesions: diagnosis first, then treatment and not always tooth extraction: a cross-sectional survey in Spain and a proposal of a clinical treatment protocol

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    Background: Endoperiodontal lesion (EPL) is defined as a pathological communication between pulpal and periodontal tissues. Currently, accurate diagnosis and treatment of this pathology are challenging. This study aims to identify the different endoperiodontal therapies to propose a clinical protocol to simplify and unify the criteria for EPL treatment. Material and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study through an electronic survey. This study matches STROBE guidelines. The anonymous questionnaire contained open-ended and close-ended questions and was distributed to dentistry professors of the UPV/EHU and different professionals from Spanish associations and scientific societies. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: A total of 128 responses were obtained, of which 120 were active professionals or had not been so for less than 5 years. The majority of professionals were women (65.6%) and from the Basque Country (63.9%). A total of 86.6% reported having complementary studies to a degree or a bachelor’s degree. The treatments performed by these professionals were similar to those reported in the literature, which started with root canal treatment when there was an endodontic origin (91.5%), and with basic periodontal treatment when periodontal (51.3%). Conclusions: Considering the current scientific evidence and the clinical practice of professionals in the treatment of EPL, we designed a clinical protocol. This protocol needs validation in larger populations and with longer follow-ups

    Voltage and Overpotential Prediction of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Artificial Neural Networks

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    This article explores the novel application of a trained artificial neural network (ANN) in the prediction of vanadium redox flow battery behaviour and compares its performance with that of a two-dimensional numerical model. The aim is to evaluate the capability of two ANNs, one for predicting the cell potential and one for the overpotential under various operating conditions. The two-dimensional model, previously validated with experimental data, was used to generate data to train and test the ANNs. The results show that the first ANN precisely predicts the cell voltage under different states of charge and current density conditions in both the charge and discharge modes. The second ANN, which is responsible for the overpotential calculation, can accurately predict the overpotential across the cell domains, with the lowest confidence near high-gradient areas such as the electrode membrane and domain boundaries. Furthermore, the computational time is substantially reduced, making ANNs a suitable option for the fast understanding and optimisation of VRFBs.This work has been partially supported by the Government of the Basque Country, program: Elkartek CICe2022; Grant No.: KK-2022/00043. U.F.-G. was supported by the Mobility Lab Foundation, a governmental organization of the Provincial Council of Araba and the local council of Vitoria-Gasteiz

    Innovaciones para la sostenibilidad en el despliegue de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible

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    [EN] Companies have been adapting their strategic decisions in order to align with Sustainable Development Goals since 2015. A motivation for companies to align their strategic decisions with Sustainable Development Goals is to gain legitimacy among supranational organizations, governments, and civil society. Some demonstrate the strength of their commitment to these goals by investing in innovations designed to boost their organizational performance; while others turn to greenwashing in a bid to maintain profits. Investing in sustainability innovations has become a key manifestation of firms’ commitment to Sustainable Development. This study aims to analyse the interaction between sustainability commitment, innovations for sustainability and organizational performance. A sample of 3,420 companies for the period 2015 to 2020 is used to test two working hypotheses. Despite the significant gains it brings in terms of sustainability performance, the results show that investing in innovation for sustainability carries the risk of short-term losses. This has several implications. Some companies may subscribe to Sustainable Development Goals in their pursuit of legitimacy rather than out of true commitment. However, actual engagement in innovation for sustainability can attract potential investors, and, in our view, should be encouraged by politicians and lawmakers.[ES] Desde el año 2015, las empresas han ido adaptando sus decisiones estratégicas para alinearse con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Esta adaptación vendría justificada por la búsqueda de legitimidad ante la presión que ejercen los gobiernos, la sociedad civil, las organizaciones supranacionales y los mercados. Algunas empresas demuestran su compromiso con estos objetivos invirtiendo en innovaciones diseñadas para impulsar su desempeño organizacional; mientras que otras recurren a procesos de “green washing” en un intento por mantener sus niveles de rentabilidad. Invertir en innovaciones para la sostenibilidad se ha convertido en una manifestación clave del compromiso de las empresas con el desarrollo sostenible. Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la interacción entre el compromiso con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, las innovaciones para la sostenibilidad y el desempeño organizacional. Para analizar esta interacción, se ha obtenido una muestra de 3.420 empresas para el período 2015 a 2020. A pesar de las mejoras significativas que las innovaciones asociadas al compromiso con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible suponen en términos de desempeño sostenible, los resultados muestran que invertir en este tipo de innovación conlleva cierto riesgo de perdidas a corto plazo. Este resultado tiene varias implicaciones. Algunas empresas pueden suscribir los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible como una forma de ganar legitimidad y no por un verdadero compromiso. Por otra parte, el compromiso real con la innovación para la sostenibilidad puede atraer a inversores potenciales, siendo éste, en nuestra opinión, un fenómeno que decisores públicos y legisladores deberían potenciar.This research has been supported by projects PID2019-104304GB-I00 and PID2019-107822RB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/ 501100011033

    A Survey on IEEE 1588 Implementation for RISC-V Low-Power Embedded Devices

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    IEEE 1588, also known as the Precision Time Protocol (PTP), is a standard protocol for clock synchronization in distributed systems. While it is not architecture-specific, implementing IEEE 1588 on Reduced Instruction Set Computer-V (RISC-V) low-power embedded devices demands considering the system requirements and available resources. This paper explores various approaches and techniques to achieve accurate time synchronization in such instruments. The analysis covers software and hardware implementations, discussing each method’s challenges, benefits, and trade-offs. By examining the state-of-the-art in this field, this paper provides valuable insights and guidance for researchers and engineers working on time-critical applications in RISC-V-based embedded systems, aiding in selecting the most-suitable stack for their designs.This work was partially supported by the ECSEL Joint Undertaking in the H2020 project IMOCO4.E, grant agreement No.10100731, and by the Basque Government within the fund for research groups of the Basque University System IT1440-22 and KK-2023/00015

    Improving the Sustainability of Catalytic Glycolysis of Complex PET Waste through Bio-Solvolysis

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    This work addresses a novel bio-solvolysis process for the treatment of complex poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste using a biobased monoethylene glycol (BioMEG) as a depolymerization agent in order to achieve a more sustainable chemical recycling process. Five difficult-to-recycle PET waste streams, including multilayer trays, coloured bottles and postconsumer textiles, were selected for the study. After characterization and conditioning of the samples, an evaluation of the proposed bio-solvolysis process was carried out by monitoring the reaction over time to determine the degree of PET conversion (91.3–97.1%) and bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) monomer yield (71.5–76.3%). A monomer purification process, using activated carbon (AC), was also developed to remove the colour and to reduce the metal content of the solid. By applying this purification strategy, the whiteness (L*) of the BHET greatly increased from around 60 to over 95 (L* = 100 for pure white) and the Zn content was significantly reduced from around 200 to 2 mg/kg. The chemical structure of the purified monomers was analyzed via infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the composition of the samples was measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), proving a high purity of the monomers with a BHET content up to 99.5% in mol.This research was funded by the Department of Economic Development and Infrastructures of the Basque Government through its ELKARTEK 2023 Program (NEOPLAST 2 Project, Reference KK-2023/00060), by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through its R&D Program “Líneas Estratégicas” (SusChemPol Project, Exp. PLEC2021-007793) and also by CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Industrial), within the framework of grants for Technological Centers of Excellence “Cervera” (OSIRIS Project, CER-20211009)

    Anthocyanin-Loaded Polymers as Promising Nature-Based, Responsive, and Bioactive Materials

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    Anthocyanins are a specific group of molecules found in nature that have recently received increasing attention due to their interesting biological and colorimetric properties that have been successfully applied in several fields such as food preservation and biomedicine. Consequently, reviews devoted to a general overview of these flavonoids have proliferated in recent years. Meanwhile, the incorporation of anthocyanins into polymeric systems has become an interesting strategy to widen the applicability of these molecules and develop new smart and functional polymers in the above cited areas. However, anthocyanin-based polymers have been scarcely reviewed in the literature. Accordingly, this review aims to be a systematic summary of the most recent approaches for the incorporation of anthocyanins into macro-, micro-, or nanostructured polymers. Moreover, this work describes the fundamentals of the applicability of smart anthocyanin-based polymers and offers an updated review of their most interesting applications as sensors, biological regulators, and active materials.This research was funded by the Basque Government Grupos Consolidados (grant IT1756-22), The National Council of Sciences, Humanities and Technology (CONAHCYT) of the Mexican government (postdoctoral grant CVU 484866), and PROSNI program of the University of Guadalajara whose resources supported part of this work

    Assessment of the operational flexibility of virtual power plants to facilitate the integration of distributed energy resources and decision-making under uncertainty

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    Distributed energy resources (DERs) are elements that actively participate in the supply of renewable energy and contribute to the decarbonization of the power system. However, they lack two factors necessary to take advantage of their operational flexibility: observability and controllability. In this sense, Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) are a feasible alternative to provide the necessary requirements for the optimal management of a set of distributed units. Therefore, knowledge of the technical and energy characteristics of each unit that makes up the VPP is a necessary condition for the effective integration of DERs into the power system. This paper proposes a methodology to graphically represent, quantify and exploit the aggregate operational flexibility of a set of units. The proposed methodology is based on five metrics related to active and reactive power, which serve as a tool to facilitate the VPP Operator's decision-making under uncertainty. Consequently, achieving the coordinated operation of several distributed units makes it possible to achieve common objectives. For instance, frequency and voltage regulation, compliance with a planned power curve, or dealing with the variability of renewable energies. The proposal is applied to a theoretical case study and through real operational tests between a hydroelectric unit and a photovoltaic plant. Finally, it is shown that the results obtained are a useful tool in real-time.The authors acknowledge the support from GISEL research group IT1191-19, as well as from the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (research group funding 181/18)

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