295 research outputs found

    Serum metabolomics assessment of etiological processes predisposing ketosis in water buffalo during early lactation

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    Metabolic disorders as ketosis are manifestations of the animal's inability to manage the increase in energy requirement during early lactation. Generally, buffaloes show a different response to higher metabolic demands than other ruminants with a lower incidence of metabolic problems, although ketosis is one of the major diseases that may decrease the productivity in buffaloes. The aim of this study was to characterize the metabolic profile of Mediterranean buffaloes (MB) associated with 2 different levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Sixty-two MB within 50 days in milk (DIM) were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to se -rum BHB concentration: healthy group (37 MB; BHB <0.70 mmol/L; body condition score: 5.00; parity: 3.78; and DIM: 30.70) and group at risk of hyperketonemia (25 MB; BHB >= 0.70 mmol/L; body condition score: 4.50; parity: 3.76; and DIM: 33.20). The statistical analysis was conducted by one-way ANOVA and un-paired 2-sample Wilcoxon tests. Fifty-seven metabolites were identified and among them, 12 were significant or tended to be significant. These metabolites were related to different metabolic changes such as mobilization of body resources, ruminal fermentations, urea cycle, thy-roid hormone synthesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress status. These findings are suggestive of metabolic changes related to subclinical ketosis status that should be further investigated to better characterize this dis-ease in the MB

    Increasing the concentration of linolenic acid in diets fed to Jersey cows in late lactation does not affect methane production

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    Although the inclusion of fat has reduced methane production in ruminants, relatively little research has been conducted comparing the effects of source and profile of fatty acids on methane production in lactating dairy cows. A study using 8 multiparous (325 ± 17 DIM; mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows was conducted to determine effects of feeding canola meal and lard versus extruded byproduct containing flaxseed as a high-C18:3 fat source on methane production and diet digestibility in late-lactation dairy cows. A crossover design with 32-d periods (28-d adaptation and 4-d collections) was used to compare 2 different fat sources. Diets contained approximately 50% forage mixture of corn silage, alfalfa hay, and brome hay; the concentrate mixture changed between diets to include either (1) a conventional diet of corn, soybean meal, and canola meal with lard (control) or (2) a conventional diet of corn and soybean meal with an extruded byproduct containing flaxseed (EXF) as the fat source. Diets were balanced to decrease corn, lard, and canola meal and replace them with soybean mean and EXF to increase the concentration of C18:3 (0.14 vs. 1.20% of DM). Methane production was measured using headbox-style indirect calorimeters. Cattle were restricted to 95% ad libitum feed intake during collections. Milk production (17.4 ± 1.04 kg/d) and dry matter intake (15.4 ± 0.71 kg/d) were similar among treatments. Milk fat (5.88 ± 0.25%) and protein (4.08 ± 0.14%) were not affected by treatment. For methane production, no difference was observed for total production (352.0 vs. 349.8 ± 16.43 L/d for control vs. EXF, respectively). Methane production per unit of dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 23.1 ± 0.57 L/kg. Similarly, methane production per unit of energy-corrected milk was not affected by fat source and averaged 15.5 ± 0.68 L/kg. Heat production was similar, averaging 21.1 ± 1.02 Mcal/d. Digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein was not affected by diet and averaged 69.9, 53.6, and 73.3%, respectively. Results indicated that increasing C18:3 may not affect methane production or digestibility of the diet in lactating dairy cows

    Boesenbergia pandurata Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Regulating Lipid Metabolism

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    Obesity, a chronic metabolic disorder, is characterized by enlarged fat mass and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The medicinal plant, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its anti-obesity activity is unexplored. The present study was conducted to determine whether B. pandurata extract (BPE), prepared from its rhizome parts, attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. BPE treatment decreased triglyceride accumulation in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral administration of BPE (200 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were suppressed by BPE administration. Fat pad masses were reduced in BPE-treated mice, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. Furthermore, BPE protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. BPE also activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in white adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these findings indicate that BPE attenuates HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and regulating lipid metabolism, suggesting a potent anti-obesity agent

    Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report

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    A mature dairy cow was transitioned from a high forage (100% forage) to a high-grain (79% grain) diet over seven days. Continuous ruminal pH recordings were utilized to diagnose the severity of ruminal acidosis. Additionally, blood and rumen papillae biopsies were collected to describe the structural and functional adaptations of the rumen epithelium. On the final day of the grain challenge, the daily mean ruminal pH was 5.41 ± 0.09 with a minimum of 4.89 and a maximum of 6.31. Ruminal pH was under 5.0 for 130 minutes (2.17 hours) which is characterized as the acute form of ruminal acidosis in cattle. The grain challenge increased blood beta-hydroxybutyrate by 1.8 times and rumen papillae mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase by 1.6 times. Ultrastructural and histological adaptations of the rumen epithelium were imaged by scanning electron and light microscopy. Rumen papillae from the high grain diet displayed extensive sloughing of the stratum corneum and compromised cell adhesion as large gaps were apparent between cells throughout the strata. This case report represents a rare documentation of how the rumen epithelium alters its function and structure during the initial stage of acute acidosis

    Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile

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    BACKGROUND: Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3×3 cross-over design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg-1 WC+600 g kg-1 grass, 200 g kg-1 WC+400 g kg-1 grass, 400 g kg-1 WC+200 g kg-1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg-1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-d adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-d measurement period in individual tie stalls. RESULTS: Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total omega-3, total omega-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn

    Role of trans fatty acids in the nutritional regulation of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants

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    Effects of dietary sources of vegetable fats on performance of dairy ewes and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk.

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    Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of supplementing the ration of lactating ewes with vegetable fats (sunflower oil, SO or hydrogenated palm oil, HPO; HIDROPALM (R)) on diet digestibility, milk yield and milk composition, and on the concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 and C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid, VA) and other main fatty acids in milk fat. Treatments involved a control diet, without added oil, and 2 diets supplemented with either 12 g/kg SO or 12 g/kg HPO on a dry matter (DM) basis. In the first experiment, 6 non-pregnant, non-lactating Lacaune ewes were used following a 3 x 3 replicated Latin Square design. Addition of vegetable fat supplement to the diet increased digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP), but did not affect that of the ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) or acid detergent fibre (ADF). In the second experiment, 60 Lacaune dairy ewes mid-way through lactation (120 +/- 12 days in milk, 0.98 +/- 0.03 kg/day average milk yield) were divided into three equal-sized groups each of which was assigned to one of the three experimental diets for 4 weeks. Compared with the control treatment, supplementation with H PO increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk. But neither vegetable fat supplement modified percentages of fat and protein in milk. Supplementation with HPO increased C14:1, C16:1 and C16:0 content and reduced C18:0 and C18:1 cis-9 content in milk fat. Supplementation with SO increased the VA content in milk fat by 36% and that of cis-9 trans-11 CLA by 29% in comparison with the control diet. Supplementation with HPO led to milk fat with 15% more cis-9 trans-11 CLA than control milk. In conclusion, adding a moderate dose of HPO or SO to the diets increased CIA concentration in milk fat. Nevertheless, supplementation with SO was more effective than HPO in increasing CLA concentration in milk fat and reducing the atherogenicity index, improving milk quality from the human health standpoint
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