4,464 research outputs found

    Explaining computer predictions with augmented appraisal degrees

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    An augmented appraisal degree (AAD) has been conceived as a mathematical representation of the connotative meaning in an experience-based evaluation, which depends on a particular experience or knowledge. Aiming to improve the interpretability of computer predictions, we explore the use of AADs to represent evaluations that are per- formed by a machine to predict the class of a particular object. Hence, we propose a novel method whereby predictions made using a support vector machine classification process are augmented through AADs. An illustra- tive example, in which the classes of handwritten digits are predicted, shows how the augmentation of such predictions can favor their interpretability

    Enaction-Based Artificial Intelligence: Toward Coevolution with Humans in the Loop

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    This article deals with the links between the enaction paradigm and artificial intelligence. Enaction is considered a metaphor for artificial intelligence, as a number of the notions which it deals with are deemed incompatible with the phenomenal field of the virtual. After explaining this stance, we shall review previous works regarding this issue in terms of artifical life and robotics. We shall focus on the lack of recognition of co-evolution at the heart of these approaches. We propose to explicitly integrate the evolution of the environment into our approach in order to refine the ontogenesis of the artificial system, and to compare it with the enaction paradigm. The growing complexity of the ontogenetic mechanisms to be activated can therefore be compensated by an interactive guidance system emanating from the environment. This proposition does not however resolve that of the relevance of the meaning created by the machine (sense-making). Such reflections lead us to integrate human interaction into this environment in order to construct relevant meaning in terms of participative artificial intelligence. This raises a number of questions with regards to setting up an enactive interaction. The article concludes by exploring a number of issues, thereby enabling us to associate current approaches with the principles of morphogenesis, guidance, the phenomenology of interactions and the use of minimal enactive interfaces in setting up experiments which will deal with the problem of artificial intelligence in a variety of enaction-based ways

    The Challenge of Believability in Video Games: Definitions, Agents Models and Imitation Learning

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    In this paper, we address the problem of creating believable agents (virtual characters) in video games. We consider only one meaning of believability, ``giving the feeling of being controlled by a player'', and outline the problem of its evaluation. We present several models for agents in games which can produce believable behaviours, both from industry and research. For high level of believability, learning and especially imitation learning seems to be the way to go. We make a quick overview of different approaches to make video games' agents learn from players. To conclude we propose a two-step method to develop new models for believable agents. First we must find the criteria for believability for our application and define an evaluation method. Then the model and the learning algorithm can be designed

    Learning a Representation of a Believable Virtual Character's Environment with an Imitation Algorithm

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    In video games, virtual characters' decision systems often use a simplified representation of the world. To increase both their autonomy and believability we want those characters to be able to learn this representation from human players. We propose to use a model called growing neural gas to learn by imitation the topology of the environment. The implementation of the model, the modifications and the parameters we used are detailed. Then, the quality of the learned representations and their evolution during the learning are studied using different measures. Improvements for the growing neural gas to give more information to the character's model are given in the conclusion

    Understanding Revolutions: The Necessity of Both Rational Choice and Sociological Approaches

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    Pluriculturalidad e interculturalidad en el Ecuador: el reconocimiento constitucional de la justicia indĂ­gena

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    En la matriz del Estado Nacional se fueron cuajando una gama de procesos de integración, mestizaje, aculturación y resistencias que han permitido construir esta inacabada nación, donde el indigenado ha colaborado de múltiples formas y a donde se potencian la diversidad y, por ende, la interculturalidad. Hoy, el Estado unitario, devenido centralista está en una profunda crisis, que lo torna ineficiente, antieconómico y poco funcional

    THE IMPACT SYSTEMS DESIGN AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES HAVE ON TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND ADAPTATION AT THE K-12 SCHOOL LEVEL DURING A TIME OF CHANGE

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has compelled K-12 schools and districts across the United States to quickly pivot to distance learning. This disruption to traditional in-person instruction required shifts in district leadership and teacher pedagogy. Previous research has shown that teachers must be provided with learning and supportive environments that cultivate and enhance their instructional technology proficiency and capabilities, hence the importance of technology leadership among K-12 administrators (Ertmer, 2005; Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010; Hennessy et al., 2005; Hew & Brush, 2007). However, much of the research in the field of K-12 technology integration has relied on quantitative and mixed-methods approaches to reflect their findings. Several gaps in the existing literature have led to a need not only for an in-depth case study approach, but also the need to study the geographic region of New York in the research base. This comparative case study was conducted in two suburban Long Island, New York school districts. The researcher will aim to triangulate findings by utilizing data from teacher focus groups, individual interviews from leaders, and a thorough document analysis of instructional technology plans, teacher contracts, and district websites. The purpose of this comparative case study was to examine the organizational dynamics and leadership practices necessary for an effective K-12 technology integration environment during a time of change. As this study conveys, leadership practices and systems thinking matter. They have been found to have a prominent impact on technology implementation and adaptation within the fabric of K-12 schooling (Christensen, 2018; Raman et al, 2019; Dexter & Richardson, 2020). Given the sudden shift in teaching pedagogy and educational leadership due to a global pandemic, this study aims to stimulate a novel investigation and thorough analysis of its implications on K-12 schools and districts through the lens of key educational stakeholders (e.g., leaders and teachers). Ultimately, the study serves as both a resource and framework to assist the K-12 education community respond to a change process and provide a theoretical framework and research-based actionable steps for educational leaders to utilize as a guide while navigating through shifting teaching and learning landscapes during a time of change

    A Study on Immigrant Activism, Secure Communities, and Rawlsian Civil Disobedience

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    This Article explores the immigrant acts of protest during the Obama presidency in opposition to the Secure Communities (SCOMM) immigration enforcement program through the lens of philosopher John Rawls’ theory of civil disobedience and posits that this immigrant resistance contributed to that administration’s dismantling the federal program by progressively moving localities, and eventually whole states, to cease cooperation with SCOMM. The controversial SCOMM program is one of the most powerful tools of immigration enforcement in the new millennium because it transforms any contact with state and local law enforcement into a potential immigration investigation. SCOMM has now been revived through executive order by the new Trump administration. Under SCOMM, an arrestee’s identifying information is automatically forwarded to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). During Obama’s tenure, when ICE chose to pursue an investigation into removability, agents issued an immigration detainer requiring that state/local authorities hold the individual beyond when she would have regularly been released, thereby providing ICE time to take her into custody and proceed with removal proceedings. John Rawls’ theory of justice justifies engagement in civil disobedience by society members, which this Article argues includes immigrants, when basic liberties are at stake and ordinary avenues of political change are unavailable. Reviewing the critiques of SCOMM, including legal challenges to its constitutionality and claims that the program threatened public safety and unfairly criminalized all immigrants, this Article submits that SCOMM represents what Rawls would characterize as a violation of basic liberties. Further, given the stagnation and gridlock that typifies government approaches to immigration reform, regular political avenues to remedy SCOMM have been foreclosed. Using primarily two states as case studies, this Article describes immigrant acts of resistance and civil disobedience and explores how these acts mobilized local and state officials to cease cooperation with SCOMM and contributed to the Obama administration’s dismantling the program. Immigrant activists and their allies must now integrate these strategies as they confront a heightened struggle
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