123 research outputs found

    Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

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    Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA) from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis

    Regulation of milk fat synthesis by dietary fatty acids

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    The objectives of this thesis research were to determine the molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids (FA) regulate lipogenic gene expression and milk fat synthesis. Principal component and multivariate analyses were conducted to establish the relationship between milk fat and FA concentrations in lactating cows fed milk fat depressing (MFD) diets. This analysis showed that in addition to the established inhibitory effect of t10c12 CLA, t7-18:1 and t7c9-CLA isomers might be involved in MFD. Lactating mice were used to test the effects of several individual trans-18:1 isomers and t10c12-CLA on milk fat synthesis, lipogenic genes in liver and mammary tissues. Both MFD and extensive conversion of t7-18:1 to t7c9-CLA in mammary and liver tissues were shown in mice fed the t7-18:1. As expected, t10c12-CLA feeding caused MFD and reduced the expression of lipogenic transcription factor (TF) SREBP-1C. Potential roles of the TF ChREBP, PPARG, and INSIG1 were also established. A subsequent study aimed to establish whether these mechanisms operated in lactating dairy cows. Compared with un-infused controls and a t10c12 CLA negative control, post-ruminal infusion of butterfat which contains all fatty acids in the same proportion to those found in milk fat to a mixture of fats containing only the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were examined. Milk fat content, milk yield and mammary lipogenic gene expression were increased by butterfat but not by the LCFA mixture. This suggested that rates of short and medium chain fatty acid synthesis might be limiting for milk fat production. The effects of individual FA and a PPARγ-specific agonist (Rosiglitazone) on mRNA expression via qPCR of 19 genes with roles in de novo synthesis, FA uptake and transport, desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, transcriptional regulation, and nuclear receptor signaling in a MACT cell culture system were examined. The FA regulated mammary lipogenic gene expression to different extents. PPAR-γ activation of de novo lipogenesis coupled with exogenous FA availability might play a role in regulating milk fat synthesis. These experiments demonstrate the role of FA in regulating mammary lipogenic pathways, highlighting the complexity and multiple transcriptional factor involvement in milk fat synthesis

    NPC1L1 knockout protects against colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice

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    Colorectal cancer is strongly associated with lipid metabolism. NPC1L1, a sterol transporter, plays a key role in modulating lipid homeostasis in vivo. Its inhibitor, ezetimibe, began to be used clinically to lower cholesterol and this caused the great debate on its role in causing carcinogenesis. Here we explored the role of NPC1L1 in colorectal tumorigenesis. Wild-type mice and NPC1L1−/− (NPC1L1 knockout) mice were treated with azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis. Mice were sacrificed 10, 15, 18 or 20 weeks after AOM treatment, respectively. Colorectal tumors were counted and analyzed. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured using enzymatic reagent kit. Protein expression level was assayed by western blot. NPC1L1−/− mice significantly had fewer tumors than wild-type. The ratio of malignant/tumor in NPC1L1−/− mice was significantly lower than in wild-type 20 weeks after AOM-DSS treatment. NPC1L1 was highly expressed in the small intestine of wild-type mice but its expression was undetectable in colorectal mucous membranes or tumors in either group. NPC1L1 knockout decreased plasma total cholesterol and phospholipid. NPC1L1−/− mice had significant lower intestinal inflammation scores and expressed inflammatory markers p-c-Jun, p-ERK and Caspase-1 p20 lower than wild-type. NPC1L1 knockout also reduced lymphadenectasis what may be caused by inflammation. NPC1L1 knockout in mice decreased β-catenin in tumors and regulated TGF-β and p-gp in adjacent colons or tumors. There was not detectable change of p53 by NPC1L1 knockout. Our results provide the first evidence that NPC1L1 knockout protects against colitis-associated tumorigenesis. NPC1L1 knockout decreasing plasma lipid, especially cholesterol, to reduce inflammation and decreasing β-catenin, p-c-Jun and p-ERK may be involved in the mechanism.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1230-

    Role of trans fatty acids in the nutritional regulation of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants

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