Natural Resources Institute Finland

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    Pathogen community composition and co-infection patterns in a wild community of rodents

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    Rodents are major reservoirs of pathogens that can cause disease in humans and livestock. It is therefore important to know what pathogens naturally circulate in rodent populations, and to understand the factors that may influence their distribution in the wild. Here, we describe the occurrence and distribution patterns of a range of endemic and zoonotic pathogens circulating among rodent communities in northern France. The community sample consisted of 713 rodents, including 11 host species from diverse habitats. Rodents were screened for virus exposure (hantaviruses, cowpox virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus) using antibody assays. Bacterial communities were characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of splenic samples. Multiple correspondence (MCA), multiple regression and association screening (SCN) analyses were used to determine the degree to which extrinsic factors (study year and site; host habitat, species, sex and age class) contributed to pathogen community structure, and to identify patterns of associations between pathogens within hosts. We found a rich diversity of bacterial genera, with 36 known or suspected to be pathogenic. We revealed that host species is the most important determinant of pathogen community composition, and that hosts that share habitats can have very different pathogen communities. Pathogen diversity and co-infection rates also vary among host species. Aggregation of pathogens responsible for zoonotic diseases suggests that some rodent species may be more important for transmission risk than others. Moreover, we detected positive associations between several pathogens, including Bartonella, Mycoplasma species, Cowpox virus (CPXV) and hantaviruses, and these patterns were generally specific to particular host species. Altogether, our results suggest that host and pathogen specificity is the most important driver of pathogen community structure, and that interspecific pathogen-pathogen associations also depend on host species

    Säilörehuvaltaisten ruokintojen vaikutukset maitorotuisten sonnien lihan laatuun

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    Genes and pathways revealed by whole transcriptome analysis of milk derived bovine mammary epithelial cells after Escherichia coli challenge

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    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the costliest disease in dairy cattle and a major animal welfare concern. Mastitis is usually caused by bacteria, of which staphylococci, streptococci and Escherichia coli are most frequently isolated from bovine mastitis. Bacteria activate the mammary immune system in variable ways, thereby influencing the severity of the disease. Escherichia coli is a common cause of mastitis in cattle causing both subclinical and clinical mastitis. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms that activate and regulate the host response would be central to effective prevention of mastitis and breeding of cows more resistant to mastitis. We used primary bovine mammary epithelial cell cultures extracted noninvasively from bovine milk samples to monitor the cellular responses to Escherichia coli challenge. Differences in gene expression between control and challenged cells were studied by total RNA-sequencing at two time points post-challenge. In total, 150 and 440 (Padj < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were identified at 3 h and 24 h post-challenge, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were mostly upregulated at 3 h (141/150) and 24 h (424/440) post-challenge. Our results are in line with known effects of E. coli infection, with a strong early inflammatory response mediated by pathogen receptor families. Among the most significantly enriched early KEGG pathways were the TNF signalling pathway, the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and the NF-kappa B signalling pathway. At 24 h post-challenge, most significantly enriched were the Influenza A, the NOD-like receptor signalling, and the IL-17 signaling pathway

    Palkoviljojen vaikutus kokoviljasäilörehun satoon ja ruokinnalliseen laatuun

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    Lossulta Jogasjärvelle – tuulta, tuntureita ja maisemia

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    Jukuri is based in Finland
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