525 research outputs found

    Cosmic Compassion as a viewpoint to all-encompassing nature and human society

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    The present essay is an attempt at pursuing understanding about the widely spread tendency of human thinking to perceive ‚ÄĚnature‚ÄĚ as the outside of human society and culture. The attempt has been carried out by investigating, and also developing, the notion of compassion found in selected writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712‚Äď78). The essay follows Rousseau in finding compassion a fundamental aspect of the existence of, at least, many animal species and then examining how the social development of humanity has affected our relation to this ‚ÄĚpure emotion of nature‚ÄĚ. Inspired by Rousseau, and secondary level education about modern sciences, the essay adopts an outlook of nature as all-encompassing connectedness of worldly beings, outside of which nothing can exist. Thus human societies, in which ideas about defining nature as the outside of humanity are conceived, are also recognised as being thoroughly in and of nature. This result will then provide some interesting ways of viewing, for example, the nature of ‚ÄĚenvironmental problems‚ÄĚ that human societies are nowadays known to be facing

    Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids

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    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 √ó 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11 pathway, whatever the starch level in the substrate, although the bacterial communities were not different between LeA and LnA incubates. In LeA incubates, trans-10 isomer production was significantly related to the structure of the bacterial community

    Evaluating oxidative stress, serological- and haematological status of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis, after supplementing their diet with fish or corn oil

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    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease, and the antioxidant physiological effect of omega-3 from fish oil may lead to improvement of canine spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: In this prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study, we assessed haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs with OA following supplementation with either a concentrated omega-3 deep sea fish oil product or corn oil. Blood samples from 77 client-owned dogs diagnosed as having OA were taken before (baseline) and 16 weeks after having orally ingested 0.2 ml/Kg bodyweight/day of deep sea fish oil or corn oil. Circulating malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), free carnitine (Free-Car), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and serum fatty acids, haemograms and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Differences within and between groups from baseline to end, were analysed using repeated samples T-test or Wilcoxon rank test and independent samples T-test or a Mann-Whitney test. Results: Supplementation with fish oil resulted in a significant reduction from day 0 to day 112 in MDA (from 3.41 +/- 1.34 to 2.43 +/- 0.92 mu mol/L; P <0.001) and an elevation in Free-Car (from 18.18 +/- 9.78 to 21.19 +/- 9.58 mu mol/L; P = 0.004) concentrations, whereas dogs receiving corn oil presented a reduction in MDA (from 3.41 +/- 1.34 to 2.41 +/- 1.01 mu mol/L; P = 0.001) and NTBI (from -1.25 +/- 2.17 to -2.31 +/- 1.64 mu mol/L; P = 0.002). Both groups showed increased (albeit not significantly) GSH and 8-OH-dG blood values. Dogs supplemented with fish oil had a significant reduction in the proportions of monocytes (from 3.84 +/- 2.50 to 1.77 +/- 1.92 %; P = 0.030) and basophils (from 1.47 +/- 1.22 to 0.62 +/- 0.62 %; P = 0.012), whereas a significant reduction in platelets counts (from 316.13 +/- 93.83 to 288.41 +/- 101.68 x 10(9)/L; P = 0.029), and an elevation in glucose (from 5.18 +/- 0.37 to 5.32 +/- 0.47 mmol/L; P = 0.041) and cholesterol (from 7.13 +/- 1.62 to 7.73 +/- 2.03 mmol/L; P = 0.011) measurements were observed in dogs receiving corn oil. Conclusions: In canine OA, supplementation with deep sea fish oil improved diverse markers of oxidative status in the dogs studied. As corn oil also contributed to the reduction in certain oxidative markers, albeit to a lesser degree, there was no clear difference between the two oil groups. No clinical, haematological or biochemical evidence of side effects emerged related to supplementation of either oil. Although a shift in blood fatty acid values was apparent due to the type of nutraceutical product given to the dogs, corn oil seems not to be a good placebo.Peer reviewe

    Kalaöljyn vaikutus rasvahappojen biohydrogenaatioon ja maidon rasva-happokoostumukseen

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    Linolihapon (C18:2n-6) biohydrogenaatio etenee p√§√§s√§√§nt√∂isesti cis-9, trans-11 CLA:n kautta vakseenihapoksi (trans-11 C18:1) ja edelleen steariinihapoksi (C18:0). Koska ep√§t√§ydellisen biohydrogenaation v√§lituotteena p√∂tsiin saattaa kerty√§ vakseenihappoa, joka muuttuu maitorauhasessa őĒ9-desaturaasi-entsyymin vaikutuksesta CLA:ksi, biohydrogenaation merkitys CLA-tutkimuksessa on korostunut huomattavasti. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvitt√§√§ mill√§ kala√∂ljyn annostustasolla vakseenihapon kertyminen p√∂tsiin, ja sen seurauksena maidon CLA-pitoisuus voidaan optimoida. Kala√∂ljy√§ k√§ytettiin maidon CLA-pitoisuutta tehostavan ruokinnan malliaineena.Koe suoritettiin 4 x 4 latinalaisen neli√∂n koemallin mukaan. Kala√∂ljy√§ lis√§ttiin lypsylehmien v√§kirehuun 0, 75, 150 ja 300 g/pv. Ruokasulan virtaus p√∂tsist√§ m√§√§ritettiin ottamalla n√§ytteet satakerrasta. Kala√∂ljyn lis√§ys alensi s√§il√∂rehun kokonaiskuiva-aineen sy√∂nti√§, mutta ei vaikuttanut v√§kirehujen sy√∂ntiin. Koska linoleenihappo oli s√§il√∂rehun p√§√§asiallisin pitk√§ketjuinen rasvahappo, sen saanti aleni s√§il√∂rehun sy√∂nnin alentuessa. V√§kirehun merkitt√§vimm√§t rasvahapot olivat √∂ljyhappo ja linolihappo. Kala√∂ljy sis√§lsi runsaasti eikosapentaeeni- (EPA C20:5n-3) ja dokoheksaeenihappoa (DHA C22:6n-3), joiden saanti lis√§√§ntyi odotetusti kala√∂ljyannosta lis√§tt√§ess√§. Suurin kala√∂ljyn lis√§ys v√§hensi lehmien maitotuotosta merkitsev√§sti. Kala√∂ljyll√§ ei ollut vaikutusta maidon valkuais- ja laktoosipitoisuuksiin. Maidon rasvapitoisuus sek√§ rasva- ja valkuaistuotokset pieneniv√§t lineaarisesti kala√∂ljyannosta lis√§tt√§ess√§.Vaikka steariinihapon virtaus pieneni ja oktadekeenihappojen (C18:1) kokonaisvirtaus lis√§√§ntyi lineaarisesti kala√∂ljyannosta lis√§tt√§ess√§, rasvahappovirtauksien merkitt√§vimm√§t tulokset saatiin vakseenihapon ja trans-10-oktadekeenihapon osalta. Vakseenihapon virtaus lis√§√§ntyi siten, ett√§ suurimmalla kala√∂ljyannoksella sen virtaus k√§√§ntyi laskuun. Trans-10-oktadekeenihapon virtaus puolestaan lis√§√§ntyi voimakkaasti kala√∂ljyannosta lis√§tt√§ess√§. Kala√∂ljyn lis√§ys ei kuitenkaan vaikuttanut linolihapon ja CLA:n virtaukseen, mik√§ osoittaa, ett√§ kala√∂ljyn lis√§ys heikent√§√§ erityisesti trans-C18:1-rasvahappojen pelkistyst√§ p√∂tsiss√§.Kala√∂ljyn lis√§ys muutti maidon rasvahappokoostumusta merkitsev√§sti. Maidon CLA-pitoisuus nousi kaikilla kala√∂ljyk√§sittelyill√§ ja suurin pitoisuus saavutettiin jo 150 gramman p√§ivitt√§isell√§ kala√∂l-jylis√§ll√§. Kala√∂ljy√§ edelleen lis√§tt√§ess√§ maidon CLA-pitoisuus ei en√§√§ noussut. Trans-7, cis-9 CLA:ta ei muodostunut monityydyttym√§tt√∂mien rasvahappojen biohydrogenaatiossa yht√§√§n, vaikka sen pitoisuus maitorasvassa oli huomattavan korkea. Muutokset maitorasvan C18:1-rasvahappoisomeerien pitoisuuksissa ilmaisivat hyvin satakerran ruokasulassa tapahtuneita muutoksia. T√§ss√§ kokeessa vakseenihapon muodostus p√∂tsiss√§ ja maidon CLA-pitoisuus olivat suurimmillaan 150 gramman kala√∂ljyannoksella

    Effects of dietary sources of vegetable fats on performance of dairy ewes and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk.

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    Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of supplementing the ration of lactating ewes with vegetable fats (sunflower oil, SO or hydrogenated palm oil, HPO; HIDROPALM (R)) on diet digestibility, milk yield and milk composition, and on the concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CIA) C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 and C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid, VA) and other main fatty acids in milk fat. Treatments involved a control diet, without added oil, and 2 diets supplemented with either 12 g/kg SO or 12 g/kg HPO on a dry matter (DM) basis. In the first experiment, 6 non-pregnant, non-lactating Lacaune ewes were used following a 3 x 3 replicated Latin Square design. Addition of vegetable fat supplement to the diet increased digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP), but did not affect that of the ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) or acid detergent fibre (ADF). In the second experiment, 60 Lacaune dairy ewes mid-way through lactation (120 +/- 12 days in milk, 0.98 +/- 0.03 kg/day average milk yield) were divided into three equal-sized groups each of which was assigned to one of the three experimental diets for 4 weeks. Compared with the control treatment, supplementation with H PO increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk. But neither vegetable fat supplement modified percentages of fat and protein in milk. Supplementation with HPO increased C14:1, C16:1 and C16:0 content and reduced C18:0 and C18:1 cis-9 content in milk fat. Supplementation with SO increased the VA content in milk fat by 36% and that of cis-9 trans-11 CLA by 29% in comparison with the control diet. Supplementation with HPO led to milk fat with 15% more cis-9 trans-11 CLA than control milk. In conclusion, adding a moderate dose of HPO or SO to the diets increased CIA concentration in milk fat. Nevertheless, supplementation with SO was more effective than HPO in increasing CLA concentration in milk fat and reducing the atherogenicity index, improving milk quality from the human health standpoint
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