106,221 research outputs found

    Dynamics of social queues

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    Queues formed by social wasps to inherit the dominant position in the nest are analyzed by using a transient quasi-birth-and-death (QBD) process. We show that the extended nest lifespan due to division of labor between queen and helpers has a big impact on nest productivity

    Book Review

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    Review of: WESLEY A. MAGAT & W. KIP VISCUSI, INFORMATIONAL APPROACHES TO REGULATION. (MIT Press 1992) [274 pp.] Appendices, endnotes, illustrations, index, list of titles in the Regulation of Economic Activity series, list of tables and figures, preface, series foreword. LC 91-29483; ISBN 0-262-13277-X. [$32.50 cloth. 55 Hayward Street; Cambridge MA 02142.

    I don’t like it because it eats sprouts: Conditioning preferences in children

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    Although little is known about how preferences develop in childhood, work in adults suggests that evaluative responses to stimuli can be acquired through classical conditioning. In two experiments children were exposed to novel cartoon characters, that were either consistently paired with a picture of a disliked food (Brussels sprouts) or a liked food (ice cream). Relative preferences for these stimuli (and others) were measured before and after these paired presentations (Experiment 1): preferences for the cartoon character paired with Brussels sprouts decreased, whereas preferences for the character paired with ice cream increased. These preferences persisted after 10 un-reinforced trials. Experiment 2 replicated this finding using affective priming as an index of preference for the cartoon characters. These findings demonstrate that preferences to novel stimuli can be conditioned in children and result from associations formed between the stimulus and a stimulus possessing positive or negative valence

    Working as a Security Guard in Western New York

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    Being a security guard is something to be proud of. A security guard protects people, and the job can be challenging and even dangerous. Guards have to be licensed, and there are certain safety measures and skills that they have to learn. Security guards can save lives, stop terrorism, and make entire neighborhoods feel more comfortable. Under the right circumstances, security can make a good career. There can be opportunities for increased rankings and advancements, and security guards may go on to start their own contracted security companies

    100 ways to make a Japanese house

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    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Scenes of children making dollhouses are something of a leitmotif in Rumer Godden’s celebrated doll stories. Her first children’s novel, The Dolls’ House (1947), has sisters Charlotte and Emily Dane refurbishing a Victorian dollhouse, while in 1956’s The Fairy Doll, the young protagonist Elizabeth fashions a more unassuming home for her doll. Of course, Charlotte, Emily, and Elizabeth are not alone in these pursuits, and Godden is not the only mid-twentieth-century children’s writer to detail them. One of Elinor Brent-Dyer’s Chalet School heroines, Tom Gay, creates many dollhouses in her time at the school, selling these at the end-of-school sales; the first appears in Tom Tackles the Chalet School (serialized in 1947 and 1948 before being released as a single volume in 1955). The Five Dolls series by Helen Clare is likewise full of improvised dollhouse objects and craft activities; in Five Dolls in a House (1953), for example, heroine Elizabeth converts her child-sized blue velvet ribbon into a dolls’ staircase carpet, blithely saying, “we’ll pin it on with drawing-pins as I haven’t any stair rods” (58). However, what is an ancillary, if significant, motif in Brent-Dyer, Clare, and even The Dolls’ House or The Fairy Doll becomes the defining narrative preoccupation in two of Godden’s lesser-known works, her 1961 children’s novel Miss Happiness and Miss Flower and its sequel Little Plum (1963)

    The Experimental Status of the Standard Electroweak Model at the End of the LEP-SLC Era

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    A method is proposed to calculate the confidence level for agreement of data with the Standard Model (SM) by combining information from direct and indirect Higgs Boson searches. Good agreement with the SM is found for mH120m_H \simeq 120 GeV using the observables most sensitive to mHm_H: AlA_l and mWm_W. In particular, quantum corrections, as predicted by the SM, are observed with a statistical significance of forty-four standard deviations. However, apparent deviations from the SM of 3.7σ\sigma and 2.8σ\sigma are found for the Zννˉ\nu \bar{\nu} and right-handed Zbbˉ\bar{{\rm b}} couplings respectively. The maximum confidence level for agreement with the SM of the entire data set considered is 0.006\simeq 0.006 for mH180m_H \simeq 180 GeV. The reason why confidence levels about an order of magnitude higher than this have been claimed for global fits to similar data sets is explained.Comment: 47 pages, 8 figures, 24 tables. An in-depth study of statistical issues related to the comparison of precision EW data to the S

    Humor in Corporate Work Place Interactions: It\u27s Not What You Can Do for Humor, but What Humor Can Do for You

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    This review examines the role of humor in work place interactions through the social constructionist perspective (Hatch 1997). That is, this review explores the ways in which people construct their interactions through humor, and the effects that has on their performance in the work place. However, according to Robinson, “any attempt to analyze humor risks taking all the fun out of the subject,” but this review is going to do just that (2001:123). Humor is often defined as being in the eye of the beholder. However, there are a few theories as to what constitutes humor. Humor is generally known as a verbal or written incongruity, or inconsistency with a societal norm, and communicated with the intention of being amusing (O’Quin 1981). This review focuses on that humor which is intended to be humorous, regardless of the outcome. Humor is a diverse and complex creature that has been scrutinized by some of the most learned scholars over the years, as shown in this review, which has sources dating back to 1951. The wealth of knowledge gathered on humor over the years shows that humor can be used in just about any way imaginable. Humor can be used to alienate people (Emerson 1969; Fine and De Soucey 2005; Robinson and Smith-Lovin 2001; Stephenson 1951), to create conflict (Hatch 1997; Stephenson 1951), to ease conflict (Rose 2007; Romero and Cruthirds 2006; Stephenson 1951), to broach taboo topics (Emerson 1969; Sanford and Elder 1984; Stephenson 1951), or even to explore one’s own identity (Rose 2007; Sanford and Elder 1984). This review will briefly touch on all of these things, but the main focus of this review is the use of humor in the workplace, and how it is used to the benefit of the company and its employees. The review explores how and why humor builds group cohesion, facilitates communication, relieves stress, and (spark) sparks creativity (Romero and Cruthirds 2006; Romero and Pescosolido 2008). Managers and employees who use humor in a productive manner can create an atmosphere that stimulates many desirable aspects of the corporate workplace. However, humor is not entirely a bag full of chuckles, as there are some serious implications that are associated with humor (Emerson 1969). Humor can be used in a variety of unpleasant ways(;), both intentionally and unintentionally, such as to create boundaries between people, and can cause hurt feelings. This is important because it is entirely counterproductive to humor that enhances work place productivity. Productivity in the work place is essential, especially to managers, as this generation of employees increasingly expect work to be fun (Romero and Pescosolido 2008). This is highly relevant in this day and age, as employers must look for innovative ways to motivate their employees

    Understanding cohousing in the UK for the 21st-century

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    It is appropriate that this piece on Cohousing in the UK is being prepared for a continental periodical, as the original development of contemporary Cohousing neighbourhoods in Northern Europe remains a source of great fascination and inspiration to many who wish to extend such success into the UK and who are always interested in knowing what particular mechanisms might exist in other countries to support new projects. The wider context for how and where new community-centred projects could be realised remains a much-debated issue in the UK, and there are always wistful glances at any different rate for this to happen in other countries. Only approximately 10,000 properties out of the UK’s 24 million dwellings are collectively owned or managed by the ‘mutual housing sector’ (which include co-operatives, land trusts, Cohousing schemes, self build projects, and others...). While the current time is about the most optimistic for new UK schemes to be pushed forward, there is a constant awareness of the obstacles that groups have to face here in finding the suitable land and finance to make their schemes happen

    Globalization, Crop Choice and Property Rights in Rural Peru, 1994-2004

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    This paper describes the results of initial work analysing a panel of rural households in Peru between 1994 and 2004 to determine household responses to changes in relative prices of traditional versus export-oriented products. Our principal interest was to better understand how household responses to external economic shocks influenced rural welfare, income distribution and poverty. Since a large percentage of Peruvians living in poverty are located in rural areas, learning more about how these households respond to a changing external environment provides insights into the factors that influence their ability to improve their absolute and relative economic position. The results of our analysis indicate that changes in relative prices had a significant impact on the adoption of new agricultural products, and the magnitude of response was mitigated by households? degree of tenure security and access to regional and local markets. Analyses of household expenditures over the period indicate that those who adopted export crops experienced a significant growth in consumption proportional to the change in acreage devoted to exportable products, and were less likely to be classified as impoverished at the end of the period. Instrumental variables estimates suggest that this association is causal.agricultural households, microeconomic, international trade, structural adjustment, technology adoption, poverty,

    FDR and victims of family violence: Ensuring a safe process and outcomes

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    Family dispute resolution (FDR) is a positive first-stop process for family law matters, particularly those relating to disputes about children. FDR provides the parties with flexibility within a positive, structured and facilitated framework for what are often difficult and emotional negotiations. However, there are a range of issues that arise for victims of family violence in FDR that can make it a dangerous and unsafe process for them unless appropriate precautions are taken. This article discusses the nature of FDR and identifies the many positive aspects of it for women participants. The article then considers the nature and dynamic of family violence in order to contextualise the discussion that follows regarding concerns for the safety of participants in the FDR process. Finally, it offers some suggestions about how Australia could approach FDR differently to make it safer for victims of family violence