604 research outputs found

    Spectrum of topics for world congresses and other activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) : a first proposal

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    Background: One of the objectives of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is to improve the continuity of World Congresses. This requires the development of an abstract topic list for use in congress announcements and abstract submissions. Methods: An abstract topic list was developed on the basis of the definitions of human functioning and rehabilitation research, which define 5 main areas of research (biosciences in rehabilitation, biomedical rehabilitation sciences and engineering, clinical Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) sciences, integrative rehabilitation sciences, and human functioning sciences). For the abstract topic list, these research areas were grouped according to the proposals of congress streams. In a second step, the first version of the list was systematically compared with the topics of the 2003 ISPRM World Congress. Results: The resulting comprehensive abstract topic list contains 5 chapters according to the definition of human functioning and rehabilitation research. Due to the high significance of clinical research, clinical PRM sciences were placed at the top of the list, comprising all relevant health conditions treated in PRM services. For congress announcements a short topic list was derived. Discussion: The ISPRM topic list is sustainable and covers a full range of topics. It may be useful for congresses and elsewhere in structuring research in PRM

    Cluster Lenses

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    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining to cluster formation and evolution, as well as constraining the nature of dark matter; (ii) the study of the lensed objects - probing the properties of the background lensed galaxy population - which is statistically at higher redshifts and of lower intrinsic luminosity thus enabling the probing of galaxy formation at the earliest times right up to the Dark Ages; and (iii) the study of the geometry of the Universe - as the strength of lensing depends on the ratios of angular diameter distances between the lens, source and observer, lens deflections are sensitive to the value of cosmological parameters and offer a powerful geometric tool to probe Dark Energy. In this review, we present the basics of cluster lensing and provide a current status report of the field.Comment: About 120 pages - Published in Open Access at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/j183018170485723/ . arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:astro-ph/0504478 and arXiv:1003.3674 by other author

    Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

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    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a ‚Äúclinical pathologist‚ÄĚ monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a ‚Äústatistician‚ÄĚ knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a ‚Äúbone specialist‚ÄĚ providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Reporter GFPu Does Not Accumulate in Neurons of the R6/2 Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

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    Impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has long been considered an attractive hypothesis to explain the selective dysfunction and death of neurons in polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). The fact that inclusion bodies in HD mouse models and patient brains are rich in ubiquitin and proteasome components suggests that the UPS may be hindered directly or indirectly by inclusion bodies or their misfolded monomeric or oligomeric precursors. However, studies into UPS function in various polyglutamine disease models have yielded conflicting results, suggesting mutant polyglutamine tracts may exert different effects on the UPS depending on protein context, expression level, subcellular localisation and cell-type. To investigate UPS function in a well-characterised mouse model of HD, we have crossed R6/2 HD mice with transgenic UPS reporter mice expressing the GFPu construct. The GFPu construct comprises GFP fused to a constitutive degradation signal (CL-1) that promotes its rapid degradation under conditions of a healthy UPS. Using a combination of immunoblot analysis, fluorescence and immunofluorescence microscopy studies, we found that steady-state GFPu levels were not detectably different between R6/2 and non-R6/2 brain. We observed no correlation between inclusion body formation and GFPu accumulation, suggesting no direct relationship between protein aggregation and global UPS inhibition in R6/2 mice. These findings suggest that while certain branches of the UPS can be impaired by mutant polyglutamine proteins, such proteins do not necessarily cause total blockade of UPS-dependent degradation. It is therefore likely that the relationship between mutant polyglutamine proteins and the UPS is more complex than originally anticipated

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV