301 research outputs found

    Glutaredoxin-1 up-regulation induces soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, attenuating post-ischemia limb revascularization

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    Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme that regulates diverse cellular function by removal of GSH adducts from S-glutathionylated proteins including signaling molecules and transcription factors. Glrx is up-regulated during inflammation and diabetes. Glrx overexpression inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration. The aim was to investigate the role of up-regulated Glrx in EC angiogenic capacities and in vivo revascularization in the setting of hind limb ischemia. Glrx overexpressing EC from Glrx transgenic mice (TG) showed impaired migration and network formation and secreted higher level of soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt), an antagonizing factor to VEGF. After hind limb ischemia surgery Glrx TG mice demonstrated impaired blood flow recovery, associated with lower capillary density and poorer limb motor function compared to wild type littermates. There were also higher levels of anti-angiogenic sFlt expression in the muscle and plasma of Glrx TG mice after surgery. Non-canonical Wnt5a is known to induce sFlt. Wnt5a was highly expressed in ischemic muscles and EC from Glrx TG mice, and exogenous Wnt5a induced sFlt expression and inhibited network formation in human microvascular EC. Adenoviral Glrx-induced sFlt in EC was inhibited by a competitive Wnt5a inhibitor. Furthermore, Glrx overexpression removed GSH adducts on p65 in ischemic muscle and EC, and enhanced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activity which was responsible for Wnt5a-sFlt induction. Taken together, up-regulated Glrx induces sFlt in EC via NF-kB -dependent Wnt5a, resulting in attenuated revascularization in hind limb ischemia. The Glrx-induced sFlt may be a part of mechanism of redox regulated VEGF signaling

    Inactivating hepatic follistatin alleviates hyperglycemia

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    Unsuppressed hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes substantially to glucose intolerance and diabetes, which can be modeled by the genetic inactivation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) and Irs2 (LDKO mice). We previously showed that glucose intolerance in LDKO mice is resolved by hepatic inactivation of the transcription factor FoxO1 (that is, LTKO mice)-even though the liver remains insensitive to insulin. Here, we report that insulin sensitivity in the white adipose tissue of LDKO mice is also impaired but is restored in LTKO mice in conjunction with normal suppression of HGP by insulin. To establish the mechanism by which white adipose tissue insulin signaling and HGP was regulated by hepatic FoxO1, we identified putative hepatokines-including excess follistatin (Fst)-that were dysregulated in LDKO mice but normalized in LTKO mice. Knockdown of hepatic Fst in the LDKO mouse liver restored glucose tolerance, white adipose tissue insulin signaling and the suppression of HGP by insulin; however, the expression of Fst in the liver of healthy LTKO mice had the opposite effect. Of potential clinical significance, knockdown of Fst also improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed obese mice, and the level of serum Fst was reduced in parallel with glycated hemoglobin in obese individuals with diabetes who underwent therapeutic gastric bypass surgery. We conclude that Fst is a pathological hepatokine that might be targeted for diabetes therapy during hepatic insulin resistance

    Regulation of angiogenesis by a non-canonical Wnt-Flt1 pathway in myeloid cells

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    Myeloid cells are a feature of most tissues. Here we show that during development, retinal myeloid cells (RMCs) produce Wnt ligands to regulate blood vessel branching. In the mouse retina, where angiogenesis occurs postnatally, somatic deletion in RMCs of the Wnt ligand transporter Wntless results in increased angiogenesis in the deeper layers. We also show that mutation of Wnt5a and Wnt11 results in increased angiogenesis and that these ligands elicit RMC responses via a non-canonical Wnt pathway. Using cultured myeloid-like cells and RMC somatic deletion of Flt1, we show that an effector of Wnt-dependent suppression of angiogenesis by RMCs is Flt1, a naturally occurring inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These findings indicate that resident myeloid cells can use a non-canonical, Wnt-Flt1 pathway to suppress angiogenic branching

    Tissue Microenvironments Define and Get Reinforced by Macrophage Phenotypes in Homeostasis or during Inflammation, Repair and Fibrosis

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    Current macrophage phenotype classifications are based on distinct in vitro culture conditions that do not adequately mirror complex tissue environments. In vivo monocyte progenitors populate all tissues for immune surveillance which supports the maintenance of homeostasis as well as regaining homeostasis after injury. Here we propose to classify macrophage phenotypes according to prototypical tissue environments, e.g. as they occur during homeostasis as well as during the different phases of (dermal) wound healing. In tissue necrosis and/or infection, damage- and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce proinflammatory macrophages by Toll-like receptors or inflammasomes. Such classically activated macrophages contribute to further tissue inflammation and damage. Apoptotic cells and antiinflammatory cytokines dominate in postinflammatory tissues which induce macrophages to produce more antiinflammatory mediators. Similarly, tumor-associated macrophages also confer immunosuppression in tumor stroma. Insufficient parenchymal healing despite abundant growth factors pushes macrophages to gain a profibrotic phenotype and promote fibrocyte recruitment which both enforce tissue scarring. Ischemic scars are largely devoid of cytokines and growth factors so that fibrolytic macrophages that predominantly secrete proteases digest the excess extracellular matrix. Together, macrophages stabilize their surrounding tissue microenvironments by adapting different phenotypes as feed-forward mechanisms to maintain tissue homeostasis or regain it following injury. Furthermore, macrophage heterogeneity in healthy or injured tissues mirrors spatial and temporal differences in microenvironments during the various stages of tissue injury and repair. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Base

    Regulation of neovascularization by S-glutathionylation via the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway

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    S-glutathionylation occurs when reactive oxygen or nitrogen species react with protein-cysteine thiols. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a cytosolic enzyme which enzymatically catalyses the reduction in S-glutathionylation, conferring reversible signalling function to proteins with redox-sensitive thiols. Glrx can regulate vascular hypertrophy and inflammation by regulating the activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and actin polymerization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration is inhibited by Glrx overexpression. In mice overexpressing Glrx, blood flow recovery, exercise function and capillary density were significantly attenuated after hindlimb ischaemia (HLI). Wnt5a and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were enhanced in the ischaemic-limb muscle and plasma respectively from Glrx transgenic (TG) mice. A Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway had been described in myeloid cells controlling retinal blood vessel development. Interestingly, a Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway was found also to play a role in EC to inhibit network formation. S-glutathionylation of NF-κB components inhibits its activation. Up-regulated Glrx stimulated the Wnt5a/sFlt-1 pathway through enhancing NF-κB signalling. These studies show a novel role for Glrx in post-ischaemic neovascularization, which could define a potential target for therapy of impaired angiogenesis in pathological conditions including diabetes

    Macrophages: supportive cells for tissue repair and regeneration.

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    International audienceMacrophages, and more broadly inflammation, have been considered for a long time as bad markers of tissue homeostasis. However, if it is indisputable that macrophages are associated with many diseases in a deleterious way, new roles have emerged, showing beneficial properties of macrophages during tissue repair and regeneration. This discrepancy is likely due to the high plasticity of macrophages, which may exhibit a wide range of phenotypes and functions depending on their environment. Therefore, regardless of their role in immunity, macrophages play a myriad of roles in the maintenance and recovery of tissue homeostasis. They take a major part in the resolution of inflammation. They also exert various effects of parenchymal cells, including stem and progenitor cell, of which they regulate the fate. In the present review, few examples from various tissues are presented to illustrate that, beyond their specific properties in a given tissue, common features have been described that sustain a role of macrophages in the recovery and maintenance of tissue homeostasis

    Obese patients after gastric bypass surgery have lower brain-hedonic responses to food than after gastric banding

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    Objectives Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater efficacy for weight loss in obese patients than gastric banding (BAND) surgery. We hypothesise that this may result from different effects on food hedonics via physiological changes secondary to distinct gut anatomy manipulations. Design We used functional MRI, eating behaviour and hormonal phenotyping to compare body mass index (BMI)-matched unoperated controls and patients after RYGB and BAND surgery for obesity. Results Obese patients after RYGB had lower brain-hedonic responses to food than patients after BAND surgery. RYGB patients had lower activation than BAND patients in brain reward systems, particularly to high-calorie foods, including the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. This was associated with lower palatability and appeal of high-calorie foods and healthier eating behaviour, including less fat intake, in RYGB compared with BAND patients and/or BMI-matched unoperated controls. These differences were not explicable by differences in hunger or psychological traits between the surgical groups, but anorexigenic plasma gut hormones (GLP-1 and PYY), plasma bile acids and symptoms of dumping syndrome were increased in RYGB patients. Conclusions The identification of these differences in food hedonic responses as a result of altered gut anatomy/physiology provides a novel explanation for the more favourable long-term weight loss seen after RYGB than after BAND surgery, highlighting the importance of the gut–brain axis in the control of reward-based eating behaviour

    Can medical therapy mimic the clinical efficacy or physiological effects of bariatric surgery?

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    The number of bariatric surgical procedures performed has increased dramatically. This review discusses the clinical and physiological changes, and in particular, the mechanisms behind weight loss and glycaemic improvements, observed following the gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding bariatric procedures. The review then examines how close we are to mimicking the clinical or physiological effects of surgery through less invasive and safer modern interventions that are currently available for clinical use. These include dietary interventions, orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, pramlintide, dapagliflozin, the duodenal–jejunal bypass liner, gastric pacemakers and gastric balloons. We conclude that, based on the most recent trials, we cannot fully mimic the clinical or physiological effects of surgery; however, we are getting closer. A ‘medical bypass' may not be as far in the future as we previously thought, as the physician's armamentarium against obesity and type 2 diabetes has recently got stronger through the use of specific dietary modifications, novel medical devices and pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutic targets include not only appetite but also taste/food preferences, energy expenditure, gut microbiota, bile acid signalling, inflammation, preservation of β-cell function and hepatic glucose output, among others. Although there are no magic bullets, an integrated multimodal approach may yield success. Non-surgical interventions that mimic the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery, with a reduced morbidity and mortality burden, remain tenable alternatives for patients and health-care professionals
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