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    19120 research outputs found

    Coupling Simulation of Human-Environmental Safety Risk Factors in Metro Construction –: a Case Study of Rongjiazhai Station at Xi’an Metro Line 5 in China

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    The coupling of human, management, mechanical, and environmental risk factors increases the probability of accident occurrence at metro construction sites. The degree of coupling risks at metro construction sites is the degree of interdependence among the risks in subsystems during metro construction projects. This paper uses the coupling relationship between the human and environmental risks to predict the progression in overall risk-level of construction process at Rongjiazhai station of Xi’an Metro Line 5 in China. The coupling model and system dynamics simulation are applied in four steps: develop the coupling model, estimate the weight index for metro construction risk factors, calculate the risk levels, and estimate the degrees of coupling risks. This paper identifies that the change of coupling coefficients of human-environmental factors has a significant influence on the risk-level at metro construction sites. The “psychological and physiological quality,” “natural and working environment,” and “physiological discomfort and working environment” are the most influential factors of the coupling level of human-environmental risks. The simulation results demonstrate that the coupling effects of risk factors should be emphasized in engineering practice. To reduce the risk-level of construction system, the human, mechanical, and environmental risks should be identified, coupled, and monitored in real time

    Visible Light-Driven Organic Pollutant Removal Using Fe-Based Photocatalysts Supported by Wheat Straw Biochar

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    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of highly functional photocatalyst materials using environmentally friendly and sustainable resources. In this study, wheat straw biochar (BC), a by-product of biomass pyrolysis, was explored as a green, porous substrate and a carbon-based sensitizer to activate Fe-based photocatalysts under visible light. The research also delved into the impact of doping copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) to enhance the photocatalytic activity of BC-Fe-based catalysts for the removal of methylene orange (MO) from water. Characterization results revealed a more than twofold increase in surface area and greater porosity, contributing to improved radical generation. BC demonstrated its dual functionality as a high surface area substrate and an electron sink, facilitating multistep electron movement and enhancing the photoactivity of the composite catalyst. Photodegradation experiments indicated that the combination of BC with Fe and Zn exhibited the highest performance, removing over 80% of MO within 120 min. Parametric studies highlighted the preference for an alkali pH, and the photocatalyst demonstrated efficient performance up to 30 ppm of dye. Radical scavenging experiments identified •OH and h+ as the most generated radicals. This study establishes that the green and sustainable BC holds promise as a material in the quest for more sustainable photocatalysts

    Stakeholder experiences of deprescribing psychotropic medicines for challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities

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    Purpose: Evidence of overprescribing of psychotropic medicines to manage challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities has led to national programmes within the UK to promote deprescribing, such as stopping the overprescribing of medication in people (with learning disabilities, autism or both). To successfully implement deprescribing initiatives, we need to understand how to engage stakeholders in the process. Design/methodology/approach: In a published systematic review, we reported evidence about the process of deprescribing psychotropic medicines for people of all ages with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. As a part of the original review, we searched for evidence about stakeholders’ experiences of the psychotropic deprescribing process, which was synthesised and reported within the current study. Findings: Six studies were identified. Involving carers and people with intellectual disabilities, providing ongoing support and improving access to non-pharmacological interventions, including positive behaviour support, may contribute to successful outcomes, including reducing or stopping psychotropic medicines and improving quality of life. Implementing psychotropic deprescribing requires a multidisciplinary collaborative care approach and education for stakeholders. Originality/value: There have been no previous reviews of stakeholder experiences of deprescribing psychotropic medications for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The existing literature is scant, and further research is needed

    An advanced data analytic approach for reallocating green gas emissions in cap-and-trade context

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    Due to rapid economic growth in countries, global warming has been a major challenge for many years. Cap-and-trade is recognized as the most effective method for controlling and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we develop a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to reallocate permitted emissions among decision making units (DMUs). The model considers the dependency between the production of desirable and undesirable outputs in the cap-and-trade context. In addition, in current mathematical modelling the undesirable output is addressed as a by-product of a desirable output. Moreover, the sum of efficiency scores of all DMUs is maximized. Furthermore, to address the alternative optimal solutions in the cap-and-trade context, the efficiency interval of DMUs is calculated. Finally, to show the capabilities of the developed model a case study is presented

    Experiential Learning for Circular Operations Management in Higher Education

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    This research-to-practice article delves into novel learning experiences for operations management education, involving the circular economy and experiential learning. Higher Education academics are required to develop effective learning that actively and impactfully helps nurture in students the essential competency to face sustainable development demands. In operations management education, one possibility is to integrate real-world circular economy challenges into learning activities that address issues concerning solid waste generation in business processes and operations. This type of innovative learning experience involves both conceptual understanding and practical implementation. Accordingly, experiential learning is considered a suitable pedagogy for this purpose in this work because of its hands-on applications, critical thinking, and active engagement. To illustrate this proposition, this paper presents a case study concerning an operations management undergraduate course at a Mexican university. The case study indicates how to translate a situation of solid waste generation in a business into relevant disciplinary experiential learning. The results show that students regarded the learning experience as motivating, interesting, and relevant while widely accomplishing their learning objectives. However, limitations did exist regarding experiential learning, the methodological approach, data collection, and implementation challenges. Future work points to the need for further learning experiences and to improve research reliability, transferability, and validity

    Inequalities in the Management of Diabetic Kidney Disease in UK Primary Care: :A Cross‐Sectional Analysis of A Large Primary Care Database

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    Aims: To determine differences in the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) relevant to patient sex, ethnicity and socio-economic group in UK primary care. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis as of January 1, 2019 was undertaken using the IQVIA Medical Research Data dataset, to determine the proportion of people with DKD managed in accordance with national guidelines, stratified by demographics. Robust Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity and social deprivation. Results: Of the 2.3 million participants, 161,278 had type 1 or 2 diabetes, of which 32,905 had DKD. Of people with DKD, 60% had albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) measured, 64% achieved blood pressure (BP, <140/90 mmHg) target, 58% achieved glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, <58 mmol/mol) target, 68% prescribed renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor in the previous year. Compared to men, women were less likely to have creatinine: aRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–0.99), ACR: aRR 0.94 (0.92–0.96), BP: aRR 0.98 (0.97–0.99), HbA 1c: aRR 0.99 (0.98–0.99) and serum cholesterol: aRR 0.97 (0.96–0.98) measured; achieve BP: aRR 0.95 (0.94–0.98) or total cholesterol (<5 mmol/L) targets: aRR 0.86 (0.84–0.87); or be prescribed RAAS inhibitors: aRR 0.92 (0.90–0.94) or statins: aRR 0.94 (0.92–0.95). Compared to the least deprived areas, people from the most deprived areas were less likely to have BP measurements: aRR 0.98 (0.96–0.99); achieve BP: aRR 0.91 (0.8–0.95) or HbA 1c: aRR 0.88 (0.85–0.92) targets, or be prescribed RAAS inhibitors: aRR 0.91 (0.87–0.95). Compared to people of white ethnicity; those of black ethnicity were less likely to be prescribed statins aRR 0.91 (0.85–0.97). Conclusions: There are unmet needs and inequalities in the management of DKD in the UK. Addressing these could reduce the increasing human and societal cost of managing DKD

    Industrial path development in the UK space sector: processes of legitimacy building in the establishment of Space 2.0

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    This paper explores the processes behind legitimacy building and its role in new path creation and the path transformation or the ‘de-locking’ of an established industry. We use a mixed-methods approach and focus on the emergence of ‘New Space’ or Space 2.0 in the UK, a new-to-the-world industry, with radically different products and/or conventions. Legitimation of new product categories is essential to enable future adoption by regulators and consumers. Our findings suggest that this is not a linear process but involves interlayering, or complex feedback loops, between three distinct types of legitimacy building: regulatory, normative, and cognitive. Failure in some of these feedback loops, for example, problems with altering regulatory legitimacy, would prevent the formation of new industrial pathways with significant implications for the development of new-to-the-world and new-to-region industries

    Synthesis and fabrication of lightweight microcellular thermoplastic polyimide foams using supercritical CO2 foaming

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    Polyimide foams (PIFs) are usually synthesized by solution polymerization, followed by chemical foaming to prepare thermosetting foam. In this research, lightweight microcellular thermoplastic polyimide foams (TPIFs) were fabricated via a novel two-step foaming approach using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a blowing agent. The poly(amic acid) (PAA) and polyester ammonium salt (PEAS) precursor solutions were synthesized with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) as dianhydride reagents and polyether amine Jeffamine D230 as aliphatic diamine reagent via blending and solution polymerization, respectively. The solution polymerization process demonstrated a higher molecular weight and superior formability than the blending process. The optimum thermal imidization temperature of 200 °C was optimized via the thermal and rheological property analysis. The cell morphology and mechanical properties of the TPIFs could be turned by varying the saturation time, foaming pressure, and imidization temperature. At a thermal imidization temperature of 200 °C, the TPIFs exhibited a branched structure with a small mean cell diameter (123.78 μm), and a high compressive strength (0.4 MPa) under 10 % strain at high temperature and pressure, which was more than ten times that of the TPIFs with thermal imidization temperature of 130 °C. This research provides a feasible method for producing high volume expansion ratio TPIFs with adjustable microcellular structures and outstanding mechanical properties

    Human iPSC ‐derived endothelial cells promote CNS remyelination via BDNF and mTORC1 pathway

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    Damage of myelin is a component of many diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation and maturation of the quiescent oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are the crucial cellular processes for CNS remyelination, which is influenced by neuroinflammation in the lesion microenvironment. Endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC‐ECs) have shown promise in restoring function in various preclinical animal models. Here we ask whether and whether transplantation of hiPSC‐ECs could benefit remyelination in a mouse model of CNS demyelination. Our results show that in vitro, hiPSC‐ECs increase OPC proliferation, migration and differentiation via secreted soluble factors including brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). hiPSC‐ECs also promote the survival of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of hiPSC‐ECs into a toxin‐induced demyelination lesion in mouse corpus callosum (CC) leads to increased density of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and level of myelin in demyelinated area, correlated with a decreased neuroinflammation and an increased proportion of pro‐regenerative M2 phenotype in microglia/macrophages. The hiPSC‐EC‐exposed oligodendrocyte lineage cells showed significant increase in the level of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6) both in vitro and in vivo, indicating an involvement of mTORC1 pathway. These results suggest that hiPSC‐ECs may benefit myelin protection and regeneration which providing a potential source of cell therapy for a wide range of diseases and injuries associated with myelin damage

    ‘Mining women’and livelihoods: Examining the dominant and emerging issues in the ASM gendered economic space

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    The intractable challenges faced by female mine workers have come to dominate the discourse and scholarship on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) operations. However, the extensive focus on the informal and labour-intensive segments has engendered a failure to capture the nuances in the duality of ASM operations and how it impacts female outcomes. Drawing on intersectionality as a lens, in this article the authors map the dynamics on how issues related to the gender, situatedness and positionality of female mine workers interact to shape their situated labour outcomes. Highlighting the differentiated outcomes for female mine workers within the contingencies of the broader socio-cultural context in which ASM work is organised, the article sheds light on how the social identity structures such as gender, sexuality and class interact to give form to the marginalisation, occupational roles, the ‘boom town’ narrative and occupational and health challenges that characterise the ASM gendered economic space


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