903 research outputs found

    Effect of Ti underlayer thickness on the magnetic anisotropy of TbFe thin films

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    In this study, we address the impact of Ti underlayer thickness (UL: 0-40 nm) on the structural, magnetic, and microscopic properties of TbFe thin films. The structural analysis confirmed the intermixing at interfaces of the Ti and TbFe layer with the increment of UL thicknesses. Out-of-plane (OOP) coercivity (Hc), and saturation field (Hs) gradually increased with an increase in UL thickness regardless of interface mixing. For UL = 10 nm, the domain contrast and OOP stray field strength were enhanced, which may be due to the extent of d-d hybridization dominated over the influence of interfacial roughness. While for UL = 20, and 40 nm, the extent of interfacial roughness dominated the hybridization effects and as a result, stray fields deteriorated. By placing UL of 20 nm, Hc increased by nearly 6 times more than the bare TbFe system. So, we observe a state with high OOP Hc combined with nearly zero OOP stray fields that are found to co-exist in the sample. The magnetization reversal studies on a large area reveal domain nucleation followed by domain-wall motion in all the films. The idea of tuning magnetic properties by varying thicknesses of Ti UL may useful in spintronics applications.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Physics Potential of the ICAL detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

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    The upcoming 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is designed to study the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos separately over a wide range of energies and path lengths. The primary focus of this experiment is to explore the Earth matter effects by observing the energy and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrinos in the multi-GeV range. This study will be crucial to address some of the outstanding issues in neutrino oscillation physics, including the fundamental issue of neutrino mass hierarchy. In this document, we present the physics potential of the detector as obtained from realistic detector simulations. We describe the simulation framework, the neutrino interactions in the detector, and the expected response of the detector to particles traversing it. The ICAL detector can determine the energy and direction of the muons to a high precision, and in addition, its sensitivity to multi-GeV hadrons increases its physics reach substantially. Its charge identification capability, and hence its ability to distinguish neutrinos from antineutrinos, makes it an efficient detector for determining the neutrino mass hierarchy. In this report, we outline the analyses carried out for the determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and precision measurements of atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters at ICAL, and give the expected physics reach of the detector with 10 years of runtime. We also explore the potential of ICAL for probing new physics scenarios like CPT violation and the presence of magnetic monopoles.Comment: 139 pages, Physics White Paper of the ICAL (INO) Collaboration, Contents identical with the version published in Pramana - J. Physic

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV