2,685 research outputs found

    Avances en los protocolos de inseminación artificial poscervical e inducción de la ovulación en cerdas nulíparas

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    La eficiencia reproductiva en la producci√≥n porcina tiene gran importancia, siendo evaluada atrav√©s de diferentes par√°metros como la fertilidad, la tasa de parto, el n√ļmero de lechones porcerda y a√Īo, el n√ļmero de lechones destetados, el peso de los lechones al destete, etc. Estos√≠ndices pueden estar influenciados por varios factores, tanto ambientales como de manejo, ypueden mejorarse empleando diferentes biotecnolog√≠as reproductivas, como es el caso de laecograf√≠a del aparato genital, la determinaci√≥n de progesterona sangu√≠nea, la inseminaci√≥nartificial poscervical y los protocolos de inseminaci√≥n a tiempo fijo con una sola dosis seminal,teniendo como objetivo mejorar el trabajo y el manejo reproductivo en las granjas sin afectar lospar√°metros de productivos.La aplicaci√≥n de nuevos protocolos de inseminaci√≥n artificial en las cerdas nul√≠paras est√°aumentando actualmente, debido a que las estas representan entre el 20 y el 25 % del censo delas granjas, siendo responsables aproximadamente del 13 % de los lechones nacidos. Por lo tanto,se debe de intensificar los estudios realizados en las hembras j√≥venes.El inicio temprano de la pubertad en las hembras nul√≠paras es necesario para un rendimientoecon√≥mico adecuado en las granjas porcinas, ya que condiciona el futuro productivo y lalongevidad de las cerdas. Por lo tanto, se necesita un m√©todo eficaz de diagn√≥stico de la pubertad.En el primer art√≠culo de esta Tesis Doctoral se comparan diferentes procedimientos dediagn√≥stico para detectar la pubertad en condiciones de granja (caracter√≠sticas externas de lacerda, espesor de la grasa dorsal, longitud de la vagina y el c√©rvix, an√°lisis de progesterona ensangre y diagn√≥stico ultrasonogr√°fico del aparato genital). Concluyendo que tanto la ecograf√≠acomo la combinaci√≥n de dos m√©todos (determinaci√≥n de progesterona junto con la medida de lalongitud de la vagina y el c√©rvix), pueden ser precisos en el diagn√≥stico de la pubertad en lascerdas nul√≠paras, siendo la ecograf√≠a realizada por un t√©cnico experto el mejor m√©todo dediagn√≥stico. Los par√°metros de precisi√≥n se pueden usar como gu√≠a para elegir el procedimientode diagn√≥stico en la granja, pero tambi√©n se puede escoger en funci√≥n de la facilidad de uso, el coste y el efecto estresante en los animales. En este sentido, si el equipo de ultrasonograf√≠a estaya est√° presente en la granja, su uso es m√°s econ√≥mico que el gasto del an√°lisis de laconcentraci√≥n de progesterona. Adem√°s, causa menos molestias que la medici√≥n de la longitudde vagina-c√©rvix y toma menos tiempo cuando lo usa un t√©cnico experimentado.En la actualidad, la mayor√≠a de las granjas de cerdos en todo el mundo utilizan la t√©cnica deinseminaci√≥n artificial cervical en la primera inseminaci√≥n de las cerdas nul√≠paras, mientras queen las mult√≠paras utilizan habitualmente inseminaci√≥n poscervical. Cuando se usa el m√©todocervical, se aplican entre 2-3 dosis seminales/celo/cerda, con una concentraci√≥n de 2-4 x 109c√©lulas esperm√°ticas en un volumen de 70-100 ml. El n√ļmero de dosis obtenido por eyaculadoen este caso est√° limitado a 20-25 dosis por verraco. En el segundo art√≠culo de esta Tesis Doctoral,se ha planteado la inseminaci√≥n artificial poscervical (IAPC) en la cerda nul√≠para como una nuevat√©cnica para depositar la dosis seminal en el cuerpo uterino mediante un modelo de cat√©ter ysonda adaptado a la anatom√≠a de las cerdas j√≥venes y as√≠, poder obtener las ventajas del m√©todode inseminaci√≥n poscervical tambi√©n en nul√≠paras a nivel de granja comercial. Esta t√©cnica,adem√°s de utilizar un n√ļmero reducido de espermatozoides (1,5-0.5 x 109 c√©lulas esperm√°ticasen un volumen de 30-60 ml), consigue la reducci√≥n del reflujo durante la inseminaci√≥n y ladisminuci√≥n de la duraci√≥n del procedimiento de inseminaci√≥n artificial, obteniendo tasas departo y tama√Īos de camada similares. La tasa de √©xito de paso de sonda hasta el cuerpo uterinofue del 85,7 % (818/958). La frecuencia de reflujo de semen fue menor con la t√©cnica poscervicalcomparado con la t√©cnica cervical (4,3 vs 8,2 %, p diagn√≥stico positivo de pre√Īez, tasa de parto y prolificidad para ambos grupos (p>0,05).Posteriormente, una vez puesta a punto la t√©cnica de inseminaci√≥n poscervical en cerdasnul√≠paras y tras realizar una revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica sobre los agonistas de la GnRH en un tercerart√≠culo, quisimos implementar en el cuarto art√≠culo de esta Tesis Doctoral la inseminaci√≥nartificial poscervical a tiempo fijo utilizando una sola dosis seminal tras la inducci√≥n de laovulaci√≥n con Buserelina, obteniendo resultados productivos similares al uso de dos o m√°s dosisseminales. Esta doble reducci√≥n, n√ļmero de espermatozoides en la dosis seminal poscervical yn√ļmero de dosis seminales utilizadas por cerda y celo, conlleva que los verracos en los centros de inseminaci√≥n artificial puedan mejorar su difusi√≥n gen√©tica al inseminarse m√°s cerdas con susemen y, adem√°s, permitir√° en el futuro poder desarrollar nuevas biotecnolog√≠as reproductivasporcinas como es el caso de la inseminaci√≥n artificial con dosis seminales congeladas oencapsuladas de espermatozoides, etc. Es importante destacar que, aunque los objetivosprincipales de la inseminaci√≥n artificial poscervical √ļnica a tiempo fijo se centran en el progresogen√©tico eficiente producen tasas de fertilidad, tasas de parto y tama√Īos de camada similares aluso de varias dosis seminales por cerda en celo, ya que no se encontraron diferenciassignificativas entre grupos (p > 0,05). La duraci√≥n del estro fue significativamente m√°s corta en elgrupo Tratamiento (p (p a√Īo (p menor duraci√≥n en el grupo Tratamiento. Por todo ello, se recomienda el uso de este nuevoprotocolo en cerdas nul√≠paras.<br /

    Influencia de la eCG adicionada al protocolo de sincronizaci√≥n de estro ‚ÄėJ-synch‚Äô sobre el crecimiento folicular y titulaci√≥n de LH en vaquillas Holstein Friesian

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    Esta investigaci√≥n evalu√≥ la influencia de la gonadotropina cori√≥nica equina aplicada al d√≠a 6 del protocolo J-synch, sobre la respuesta folicular y la concentraci√≥n de la hormona luteinizante en vaquillas lecheras Holstein Friesian del tr√≥pico alto ecuatoriano. Se us√≥ cuatro vaquillas de 16 a 24 meses de edad, cl√≠nicamente sanas y c√≠clicas. En una primera etapa, se aplic√≥ un protocolo de sincronizaci√≥n de celo ‚ÄúJ-synch‚ÄĚ que consisti√≥ en: d√≠a 0, aplicaci√≥n de benzoato de estradiol (2 mg) + DIV-P4 (0,5 g); d√≠a 6, remoci√≥n del DIV-P4 + prostaglandina F2őĪ (500 ¬Ķg); y d√≠a 9 gonadorelina (100 ¬Ķg). En una segunda etapa, despu√©s de 30 d√≠as, las vaquillas fueron sometidas al mismo protocolo J-synch con la adici√≥n de 400 UI de eCG en el d√≠a 6 del protocolo. En ambas etapas se evaluaron en el d√≠a 6 hasta el d√≠a 10 ecogr√°ficamente los fol√≠culos dominantes, la ovulaci√≥n y cuerpos l√ļteos. Adem√°s, a las 50, 55, 60 y 65 h se evalu√≥ la concentraci√≥n s√©rica de LH mediante el ensayo de quimioluminiscencia. Los resultados mostraron que solo en una vaquilla (No. 2), en los dos protocolos se sincroniz√≥ la onda folicular, registr√°ndose un pico de LH entre 50 h (3,74 mUI/ml) y 55 h (3,88 mUI/ml) y ovulando alrededor de las 72 h despu√©s de la remoci√≥n del DIV-P4. Las otras vaquillas, el protocolo J-synch + 400 UI de eCG provoc√≥ codominancia folicular y ovulaciones dobles sin registrar picos de LH entre 50 y 65 horas despu√©s de la lute√≥lisis inducida.This research evaluated the influence of equine chorionic gonadotropin applied on day 6 of the J-synch protocol, on the follicular response and the concentration of luteinizing hormone in Holstein Friesian dairy heifers from the Ecuadorian high tropics. Four heifers from 16 to 24 months of age, clinically healthy and cyclical, were used. In a first stage, a ‚ÄúJ-synch‚ÄĚ heat synchronization protocol was applied, which consisted of: day 0, application of estradiol benzoate (2 mg) + DIV-P4 (0.5 g); day 6, removal of DIV-P4 + prostaglandin F2őĪ (500 ¬Ķg); and day 9 gonadorelin (100 ¬Ķg). In a second stage, after 30 days, the heifers were subjected to the same J-synch protocol with the addition of 400 IU of eCG on day 6 of the protocol. In both stages, the dominant follicles, ovulation, and corpora lutea were evaluated ultrasound from day 6 to day 10. In addition, at 50, 55, 60, and 65 h, the serum LH concentration was assessed using the chemiluminescence assay. The results showed that the follicular wave was synchronized in only one heifer (No. 2) in the two protocols, recording an LH peak between 50 h (3.74 mIU/ml) and 55 h (3.88 mIU/ml). ) and ovulating around 72 h after the removal of DIV-P4. In the other heifers, the J-synch + 400 IU eCG protocol caused follicular codominance and double ovulations without registering LH surges between 50 and 65 hours after induced luteolysis.0000-0002-0266-5431M√©dico Veterinario ZootecnistaCuenc

    Male-induced early puberty correlates with the maturation of arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons in does

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    In goats, early exposure of spring-born females to sexually active bucks induces an early puberty onset assessed by the first ovulation. This effect is found when females are continuously exposed well before the male breeding season starting in September. The first aim of this study was to evaluate whether a shortened exposure of females to males could also lead to early puberty. We assessed the onset of puberty in Alpine does isolated from bucks (ISOL), exposed to wethers (CAS), exposed to intact bucks from the end of June (INT1), or mid-August (INT2). Intact bucks became sexually active in mid-September. At the beginning of October, 100% of INT1 and 90% of INT2 exposed does ovulated, in contrast to the ISOL (0%) and CAS (20%) groups. This demonstrated that contact with males that become sexually active is the main factor prompting precocious puberty in females. Furthermore, a reduced male exposure during a short window before the breeding season is sufficient to induce this phenomenon. The second aim was to investigate the neuroendocrine changes induced by male exposure. We found a significant increase in kisspeptin immunoreactivity (fiber density and number of cell bodies) in the caudal part of the arcuate nucleus of INT1 and INT2 exposed females. Thus, our results suggest that sensory stimuli from sexually active bucks (e.g., chemosignals) may trigger an early maturation of the ARC kisspeptin neuronal network leading to gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and first ovulation

    EFFECT OF FERMENTEDCINNAMON JUICE EXTRACT ON RED SOKOTO BUCKS TESTICULAR HISTO-MORPHOLOGY AND SEXUAL ETHOGRAM

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    This study was aimed to determine the effect of fermented cinnamon juice extract (FCJE) on Red SokotoBucks testicular histo-morphology and sexual ethogram.A total number of 24 apparently healthy pubertal red Sokoto buck was allotted into four treatments consists of 0, 15, 30 and 45 ml of FCJE in a completely randomized design (CRD), Duncan multiple range test were used to separate means between treatment. The animals were drenched for 8 weeks daily. Two bucks from each treatment were randomly selected and orchidectomized to obtained testes for testicular morphometry and histology determination. The result in this study suggested that bucks supplemented 45 ml FCJE has significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher values of live weight, right testes weight, left testis weight, relative testis weight, right testis volume, left testis volume, and testes volume. Treatment 1 had the highest (P&lt;0.05) testis density values. Non-significant (P&gt;0.05) increases were observed in right testis length, left testis length, right testis width and left testis width. Considerable architectural changes were observed in the seminiferous tubules from cluster, smaller size to larger in size with increases dosage of FCJE. Similarly, wider lumens were observed in control group (T1) and T2 (15 ml FCJE). However, visible interstitial cells and wider interbular space were observed in T3 and T4 where some elongations of seminiferous tubules were prominently observed in both T3 and T4. It is therefore, concluded that supplementation of FCJE has a positive effect in changing testicular morphology and profound responses in altering testicular histological structures. However, further studies are highly suggested to validate this response and fully explore the physiological mechanisms involves for the aphrodisiac activities of fermented cinnamon juice extract observed in this study

    Efecto del tratamiento hormonal sobre la tasa de concepci√≥n en vacas holstein problema, regi√≥n La Libertad, Per√ļ

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    En las √ļltimas d√©cadas, se observa una tendencia decreciente de la tasa de concepci√≥n (TC) en los establos lecheros, que es necesario mejorar, mediante el uso de tratamientos hormonales. La investigaci√≥n tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de dos tratamientos hormonales sobre la TC en vacas repetidoras y vacas con anestro posparto, en un establo ubicado en la regi√≥n La Libertad, Per√ļ. Se evaluaron registros de 1 110 inseminaciones, 857 correspondieron a servicios en vacas que presentaron celo normal posparto (T0), 116 servicios en vacas repetidoras tratadas con CIDR + BE (T1) y, 137 servicios en vacas con anestro posparto tratadas con GnRH + PGF2őĪ (T2). Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de Chi cuadrado y proporciones. La TC del T2 (46.7 %) fue similar (p>0.05) al T0 (47.8 %) y superior (p<0.01) a la TC del T1 (32.7 %). Los servicios por concepci√≥n (SC) del T0, T1 y T2 fueron 2.09, 3.05 y 2.14, respectivamente. Las vacas tratadas con GnRH + PGF2őĪ mostraron una mejor TC y SC en comparaci√≥n a las tratadas con CIDR + BE, pero fueron similares al control. El tratamiento hormonal GnRH + PGF2őĪ podr√≠a ser una alternativa para pre√Īar vacas que presentan anestro posparto

    Impact of oestrus synchronization devices on ewes vaginal microbiota and artificial insemination outcome

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    Introduction: The low pregnancy rate by artificial insemination in sheep represents a fundamental challenge for breeding programs. In this species, oestrus synchronization is carried out by manipulating hormonal regimens through the insertion of progestogen intravaginal devices. This reproductive strategy may alter the vaginal microbiota affecting the artificial insemination outcome. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the vaginal microbiome of 94 vaginal swabs collected from 47 ewes with alternative treatments applied to the progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (probiotic, maltodextrin, antibiotic and control), in two sample periods (before placing and after removing the devices). To our knowledge, this is the first study using nanopore-based metagenome sequencing for vaginal microbiome characterization in livestock. Results: Our results revealed a significant lower abundance of the genera Oenococcus (Firmicutes) and Neisseria (Proteobacteria) in pregnant compared to non-pregnant ewes. We also detected a significant lower abundance of Campylobacter in the group of samples treated with the probiotic. Discussion: Although the use of probiotics represents a promising practice to improve insemination results, the election of the suitable species and concentration requires further investigation. In addition, the use of progestogen in the synchronization devices seemed to increase the alpha-diversity and decrease the abundance of harmful microorganisms belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Fusobacteriia classes, suggesting a beneficial effect of their use.This work was funded by INIA-GENOVIS (grant CON19-043-MGA), Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain (grant RTI-2018-096487-R-C33), and also has received financial support from Fondos FEDER.artificial inseminationfertilitynanoporeovinereproductionvaginal microbiotametagenomemicrobiomePublishe

    Factors influencing seasonal anestrus in buffaloes and strategies to overcome the summer anestrus in buffaloes

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    Reproductive managements of buffalo during the summer season a challenging task livestock’s owner. There are different factors contributes to this condition; the most important are consequence of increased temperature and humidity that result in a decreased expression of overt sings of estrus and reduction in appetite and dry matter intake. The failure to express the overt signs of estrus is due to aberration in endocrine profile. Heat stress during the summer causes hyper-prolactinaemia, suppressing the secretion of gonadotropins, which alters the ovarian steroidogenesis. It also affects folliculogenesis, follicular fluid microenvironment and oocyte quality. A large number of hormonal regimens have been used with varying degree of efficacy in terms of estrus induction and conception rate. A combined strategy of improvement in environment, nutrition and management is pre-requisite for hormonal manipulation in order to improve productivity of buffaloes during the summer season

    Exploring uterine inflammation in postpartum primiparous precocious and conventional and multiparous Bos indicus beef cows.

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    This study aimed to compare the postpartum uterine dynamics of primiparous precocious (PP), primiparous conventional (PC) and multiparous conventional (MC) Bos indicus beef cows. For this purpose, PP (n=8), PC (n=18) and MC (n=12) cows were enrolled in this study. These cows were evaluated at 20 and 10 days prepartum and weekly from parturition to 42 days postpartum (DPP). During this period, body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and serum concentrations of glucose, B-hydroxybutyrate, albumin and haptoglobin were measured. Proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, and abundance of mRNA transcripts of genes involved in uterine inflammation and uterine health were evaluated. The PP cows had lower (p<.05) BW and SFT than that for PC and MC cows during the study period. The serum concentration of albumin after 35 DPP was lower (p<.05) in PP cows. The PP cows had the highest proportion of PMN on 28 and 35 DPP compared to PC and MC cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IL-1B; and IL-8 increased after 21 DPP in PP cows compared to the other groups. The PC had the highest, MC had an intermediate, and PP cows had the lowest relative abundance of IL10 mRNA. Overall, these findings indicated that uterine inflammation was more pronounced in PP cows. Moreover, based on the proportion of PMN and abundance of transcripts associated with inflammation in the uterus, PP cows may require a longer period to recover their uterine health after calving.Online first

    Review: Current status of corpus luteum assessment by doppler ultrasonography to diagnose non-pregnancy and select embryo recipients in cattle.

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    A number of potentials uses of Doppler ultrasonography have been explored in the last decades, both as research tools in reproductive physiology investigations and for the reproductive management of farm animals. The objective of this review was to address some of the recent strategies developed in fixedtime reproductive programs and resynchronization of ovulation in cattle, based on the evaluation of corpus luteum function by color-Doppler ultrasound imaging. Recent studies in dairy and beef cattle pointed out to a high accuracy when Doppler ultrasonography is used to assess the functionality of the corpus luteum and identify non-pregnant females at 20?24 days after breeding. Therefore, super-early resynchronization programs starting in the second week after timed-artificial insemination or embryo transfer have been developed and are being implemented in commercial assisted reproduction programs; thus, anticipating conception with proven semen or genetically superior embryos. In addition, assessment of corpus luteum blood perfusion can be used for identifying high fertility embryo recipients in fixedtime embryo transfer programs

    Pregnancy Rates Associated with Oxidative Stress after Estrus Synchronization of Bulgarian Murrah Buffaloes in Breeding and Non-Breeding Season

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    Background: The current study aims to measure the effect of oxidative stress on the pregnancy rates of Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes during the breeding and non-breeding season. Methods: The study group consisted of 24 mature buffaloes more than 40 days after parturition. The following parameters were measured: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) products, Ascorbate radicals, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Protein Carbonyl Content (PPC), and total Nitric oxide. The Presynch/Ovsynch protocol was used for estrus synchronization. Results: A statistically significant increase in ROS products were measured in blood serum during the breeding season compared with the non-breeding season. The highest levels measured were in non-pregnant buffaloes during the breeding season. High levels of oxidative stress were registered due to low SOD activity in buffaloes during the breeding season compared to SOD activity during the non-breeding season. The highest SOD activity was observed in non-pregnant buffaloes during the summer season. The lowest GSH-Px levels were observed in non-pregnant buffaloes during both study periods. During the breeding season, concentrations of total NO and PPC were elevated. Conclusion: Comparing the obtained results for oxidative stress and antioxidant activity concerning pregnancy rate depending on the season showed that pregnancy in buffaloes during the breeding season was realized at higher values of NO and SOD. Increased oxidative stress was observed, resulting in a statistically significant increase in serum ROS products, as well as decreased SOD activity in buffaloes during the breeding season
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