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    Evaluation of Lactose Level Intake and Whey Permeate Form on Nursery Pig Performance

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    A total of 1,512 pigs (Line 337 × 1050 PIC; initially 10.4 lb) were used to evaluate lactose level and whey permeate form on nursery pig performance in a commercial environment. Pigs were weaned at approximately 19 d of age and were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial utilizing low or high lactose levels with either granular whey permeate (Dairylac 80, International Ingredients Corporation, Fenton, MO) or spray-dried whey permeate. There were 27 pigs per pen and 14 replications per treatment. Pigs were fed experimental diets in two phases with phase 1 having a 5 lb/pig feed budget and phase 2 having a 12 lb/pig feed budget. The low lactose diets consisted of 10.0 and 4.13% whey permeate for phases 1 and 2, respectively, and targeted a total lactose intake of 0.80 lb/pig. The high lactose diets consisted of 20.0 and 8.25% whey permeate for phases 1 and 2, respectively, and targeted a total lactose intake of 1.60 lb/pig. Following experimental diets, all pigs were fed a common corn-soybean meal-based diet until the completion of the study. There were no lactose level × whey permeate form interactions for the duration of the study (P \u3e 0.10). For main effects of lactose level, pigs fed high lactose levels had increased (P ≤ 0.024) ADFI compared to pigs fed low lactose levels from d 7 to 21 and the experimental period (d 0 to 21). For main effects of whey permeate form, overall (d 0 to 42) pigs fed spray-dried whey permeate had improved (P = 0.041) feed efficiency compared to pigs fed granular whey permeate. There were no differences in mortality or removals between treatments (P \u3e 0.10). In conclusion, this study suggests a lactose intake of 1.60 lb/pig increases feed intake compared to a lactose intake of 0.80 lb/pig during the experimental period regardless of whey permeate form. Additionally, spray-dried whey permeate improved feed efficiency regardless of the lactose level fed

    Effects of Increasing Levels of Soybean Meal in Nursery Diets on Growth Performance and Fecal Characteristics of 22- to 60-lb Pigs

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    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) on late nursery pig performance. In Exp. 1, a total of 266 pigs (241 × 600 DNA; initially 22.2 ± 0.37 lb) were used in a 21-d trial with 14 replicate pens per treatment and 4 to 5 pigs per pen. Pens of pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments which were corn-based with SBM levels of 25.0, 28.9, 32.5, or 36.2%. In Exp. 2, a total of 340 pigs (241 × 600 DNA; initially 29.8 ± 0.40 lb) were used in a 21-d trial with 14 replicate pens per treatment and 4 to 5 pigs per pen. Pens of pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments which were corn-based with SBM levels of 25.0, 28.9, 32.5, or 36.2, or 40.0%. In both experiments, at weaning, pigs were distributed into pens based on body weight, gender, sow parity, and age. Before the start of the experimental period, pigs were fed a phase 1 followed by a phase 2 control diet. After 21 and 26 d for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, pens of pigs were randomly allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design with BW as the blocking factor. An addition of SBM replaced feed-grade amino acids (AAs) to form experimental diets and all diets were formulated to be nearly isocaloric with SBM NE considered to be 100% of corn NE. Dietary additions of feed-grade AA were adjusted to meet or exceed AA requirements in relation to Lys for Ile, Met, Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val. Diets were fed in meal form. In Exp. 1, increasing SBM from 25.0 to 36.2%, decreased ADG (linear, P = 0.012), ADFI (linear, P \u3c 0.001), and final BW (linear, P = 0.021) with the greatest change occurring when SBM increased from 28.9 to 32.5%. No evidence for difference was observed for F/G (P = 0.729). In Exp. 2, starting with a heavier initial weight, increasing SBM from 25.0 to 40.0%, decreased ADFI (linear, P = 0.017) with the greatest change occurring when SBM increased from 32.5 to 36.2%. However, no evidence for difference (P ≥ 0.198) was observed for ADG, final BW, and F/G. This study showed that when pigs were fed high levels of SBM starting from 22 lb in the nursery period, pig performance was negatively affected. However, delaying the use of elevated SBM levels until pigs reach 30 lb resulted in reduced feed intake without impacting growth or feed efficiency. Thus, feeding up to 28.9% SBM for nursery pigs starting at 22 lb does not compromise performance, and starting pigs on higher SBM diets when pigs are closer to 30 lb did not affect ADG or F/G

    Evaluation of Phase Feeding and Complete Diet Blending at Different Standardized Ileal Digestible Lysine Levels on Growing-Finishing Pigs’ Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Diet Economics

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    A total of 2,160 mixed-gender pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 54.8 ± 9.4 lb) were used in the 120-d study to compare feeding strategies (phase feeding vs. complete diet blending) at different SID Lys levels (90 vs. 100% of requirement estimates) on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economics. Pens of pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments following a completely randomized block design with barn and initial body weight as blocking factors. The treatments included two feeding programs, a 5-phase feeding strategy at either 90% (Phase-90) or 100% of SID Lys requirement estimates (Phase-100); or two programs with complete diet blending, with pre-defined mixing proportions of a low and high SID Lys diet to meet 90 (Blend-90) or 100% (Blend-100) of the SID Lys curve requirement estimates for 50- to 280-lb pigs. Pigs in the phase-feeding strategies were fed on a feed budget with 47, 144, 147, 138, and 136 lb of feed per pig for phases 1 to 5, respectively. Body weights at any period of the trial and overall ADG (d 0 to 120) were not affected by the feeding strategy nor by diet SID Lys levels. In contrast, the overall ADFI of pigs fed by diet blending was lower than the ADFI of those fed by phase feeding (P = 0.002), resulting in improved F/G (P \u3c 0.001). The SID Lys levels did not influence overall ADFI or F/G. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, lean percentage, fat depth, and loin depth were not affected by the feeding program. Despite the lower overall ADFI of pigs fed by diet blending, the feeding strategy resulted in no significant differences in economic criteria except for feed cost per lb of gain at the high price scenario (P = 0.049). With low diet cost, the 90% SID Lys level resulted in lower feed cost per pig and feed cost per lb of gain than 100% SID Lys, but this was not reflected in income over feed cost (IOFC). In conclusion, diet blending at either 90 or 100% of the SID Lys requirement estimate improved F/G by reducing ADFI without impacting ADG or carcass characteristics. At current prices used in this study, feeding strategies at either 90 or 100% SID Lys did not significantly affect IOFC, but feeding 90% of the SID Lys recommendation reduced the feed cost

    Effect of Corn Row Spacing on Herbicide Effectiveness for Weed Control in 2022

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    Cultural weed control practices such as narrow row spacing can be a key component of successful weed management. Experiments were conducted in the Kansas River Valley to evaluate interactions of herbicide programs and corn row spacings on weed control and grain yield. There were no differences in weed control at a site with low weed density. However, at a site with high Palmer amaranth density, Resicore applied to 15- and 30-inch rows and Bicep + Acuron applied to 15-inch rows resulted in the greatest weed control. Corn yield was similar across all treatments at both locations

    Comparative Effects of Weight Loss Associated with a Consistent Volume of Exercise Within Education-Focused vs. Self-Regulation-Focused Obesity Treatments in Women

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    Although exercise is generally included in behavioral weight-management treatments, its association with weight loss cannot be reconciled by its corresponding energy expenditures in formerly low-active adults with obesity. It has been suggested that the self-regulation needed to maintain exercise carries over to more controlled eating (i.e., coaction) and weight loss, with exercise-associated mood improvements also having positive impacts on eating behaviors and weight. To clarify these findings to improve behavioral interventions, women randomly assigned to community-based obesity treatments with either a self-regulation focus (n = 40) or educational focus (n = 25) were included in the present reanalysis of recent data. A requirement for inclusion within the present study was completion of 2 to 5 moderate exercise sessions per week (retrospectively assessed), regardless of treatment condition. Demographic data, weight, self-regulation, and negative mood did not significantly differ, by group, at baseline. Only reduction in weight significantly differed over 6 months, with a more pronounced improvement in the self-regulation-focused group. Changes in both self-regulation and negative mood significantly mediated the relationship between group and weight loss. Further regression analysis indicated that the entry of group significantly added to the prediction of weight change by (a) both self-regulation and mood change, and (b) change in self-regulation alone. For the present adherents to a moderate amount of exercise, improvements in self-regulation and mood explained a considerable amount of the variance (32%–37%) in weight loss over 6 months. However, analyses of effects from additional, possibly related, psychosocial variables based on theory and/or prior research (e.g., self-efficacy, emotional eating) will expand understandings of the value of moderate exercise beyond associated energy expenditures within varied behavioral obesity-treatment foci

    Digital Transformation of Enterprise Learning: A Case Study of China Telecom

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    This study aimed to explore the digital transformation of enterprise learning. Through the case study of China Telecom, we studied how it transformed and its transformation dimensions

    The Academical Dress of Finland: A Contemporary (Re)Introduction

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    With its elegant tailcoat, doctoral hat and doctoral sword, the style and tradition of Finland’s doctoral dress offer a dramatic contrast to more commonly seen forms of academical dress around the world. While a few standard works have superficially touched on the topic, there is a perhaps explainable dearth of work on Finnish academical dress in either academic literature or wider writing in any language. However, digital media have begun to yield accounts of Finnish doctoral ‘graduation’, and its dress and traditions are gaining exposure. In order to bring academical dress scholars up to date with this setting, this work offers a contemporary (re)introduction to the history and form of Finland’s academical dress that goes beyond the coverage of existing works, explaining some of the meaning of its regalia, highlighting its unique features, and offering an insight into the possible psycho-social attitudes behind its adoption and use. Furthermore, it presents the first collated historical account of the origins and practices of Finnish academical dress published in English, and offers the first published photograph of the original doctoral sword designed by Akseli Gallén-Kallela, which is still in production today

    Associations between Delta-8 THC and Four Loko retail availability in Fort Worth, Texas

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    Alcohol and cannabis are two of the most widely used substances among young people, and availability and price are two of the most significant determinants of use. Four Loko products contain up to 5.5 standard alcoholic drinks in a single can, are one of the least expensive ready-to-drink alcohol products on the market and are commonly consumed by underage drinkers. Delta-8 THC is a psychoactive substance with no federal regulations regarding minimum purchase age, ingredients and synthesis, marketing, and testing for potency or contaminants. Delta-8 THC products can be inexpensively synthesized and are sold for low prices. Given that young people often use both products, and use of these products can result in negative consequences, it is important to understand whether these products are being sold in the same stores, which would indicate the presence of niche stores marketing high-risk, youth-oriented substances. This study included 360 locations with off-premise beer or beer/wine licenses in Fort Worth, Texas. Locations were called and asked whether they sold Delta-8 THC. Four Loko’s availability was determined using the manufacturer’s website. A logistic regression model examined associations between the availability of Delta-8 THC and Four Loko. Of the 360 locations, 38% sold Four Loko and 9% sold Delta-8 THC. Delta-8 THC availability was significantly associated with higher odds of Four Loko availability (OR=2.15,95%CI=1.05,4.43). Given the associations between the retail availability of Delta-8 THC and Four Loko, policies that limit access to such products, including near schools and in stores that youth patronize, may be warranted

    Teacher Inquiry: A Catalyst for Professional Development

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    Teachers seek and require meaningful professional development opportunities to truly grow in the profession. Teacher inquiry, or teacher research, is one way to accomplish professional development goals. Teacher inquiry is thought of as individualized, personalized, and meaningful professional development (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1999). In this paper we articulate the learning of a cohort of certificated professionals engaged in a year-long project that included asking research questions, designing data collection tools, and developing an independent study to examine their questions. Nine certificated professionals participated in the year-long project representing various grade levels and experiences. Data was collected through teacher reflections and professional development evaluations. The findings indicated that a trusting, supportive environment is paramount in developing a culture of inquiry. Further learning shows us that peer collaboration promotes professional growth when exploring individual projects. This paper furnishes further evidence of the importance of teaching inquiry in schools and provides a sample structure for schools wishing to develop a practice of teacher inquiry

    The First 100 Days as an Academic Department Chair

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    This session will highlight lessons learned from the presenter’s first 100 days as an academic department chairperson. Topics covered will include: daily operations, faculty, students, alumni, enrollment, retention, academic planning, assessment, accreditation, compliance, governmental relations, articulations, technology, communications, marketing, community engagement, data management, budgeting, reporting, event planning, and initiatives

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