The Research Repository @ WVU (West Virginia University)

    How Well Are Your Police Doing?: The Relationship Between Fear of Crime and Perceptions of the Police

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    Research on the fear of crime, or the fear of victimization, started becoming a popular topic in the late 1960s and has stayed in the spotlight since then. However, there has been a very small amount of literature that has focused on how an individual\u27s fear of crime impacts their perceptions of the police. There has also been cloudiness in previous literature about how to measure fear of crime. This study examines the relationship between an individual\u27s fear of crime and their perceptions of the police using two different measures of police, perceptions of police effectiveness and perceptions of community policing. Additionally, this study compared two different measurements of fear of crime, a general measure and a specific measure, to determine which is a better predictor of perceptions of police. The data for this study are obtained from the 2008-2009 survey Developing Uniform Performance Measures for Policing in the United States: A Pilot Project in Four Agencies. Results showed that the better predictor of perceptions of police depended on which aspect of police is being measured. Additionally, results showed that as an individual\u27s fear of crime increases, their perceptions of the police become more negative. The results of this study will be useful to police departments, government agencies and communities around the country

    A translator for automated code generation for service-based systems

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    Service based systems are playing a major role in industry today, everything from the verification of credit cards to booking airplane reservations are using some form of a service based approach. This unfortunately brings up a really big problem, how do we know that these services are actually doing what they are supposed to? Or, how do we know the service based system doesn\u27t get somehow compromised when handling sensitive information.;A collaborative project involving Arizona State University and West Virginia University began in 2004 to first create a language, called alpha-calculus. We can prove that the code written in alpha-calculus adheres to the requirements. The next step was to create a translator that could convert code written in alpha-calculus to Secure Operations Language (SOL), which could then be used to develop service-based systems.;While research has been done in this area, the alpha-calculus to SOL translator provides a real world solution to creating provable/verifiable service based systems

    Elucidating and Pharmacologically Targeting Secondary Injury Cascades following Neural Injury

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    3.4 million concussions occur each year in the United States. Recent evidence suggests that some of these individuals are susceptible to neurodegenerative disease development following traumatic brain injury. The unknown factor is how acute injury contributes to this degenerative process. A prominent neurotrauma related neurodegenerative disease is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is defined by neurofibrillary tau tangles with a perivascular distribution and mood disturbances. In order to elucidate the pathologic changes associated with CTE, it is imperative to utilize adequate preclinical models. We have strategically developed and tested a clinically relevant rodent blast model. The model reliably produces a CTE phenotype including tauopathy, cell death, impulsivity, and cognitive decline. Using this validated model, we investigated several important secondary injury cascades that link acute brain injury to chronic neurodegenerative changes. More importantly, we pharmacologically targeted these pathways and found improved pathologic and behavioral outcomes. In chapter 1, we discuss the potential mechanisms linking acute injury to CTE in athletes and soldiers. In chapter 2, we highlight the physics behind the compression wave produced by our model and how this wave produces injury. In chapter 3, data is presented regarding the CTE phenotype generated by our model following repetitive blast exposure in rodents. Chapter 4 focuses on the role of blood brain barrier disruption and how targeting protein kinase C activity with bryostatin reduces this disruption. In chapter 5, we look at the role endoplasmic reticulum stress plays in human pathologic specimens from patients diagnosed with CTE and in rodents following repeat blast. We found that docosahexaenoic acid successfully targeted endoplasmic reticulum stress, reduced tauopathy, and improved cognitive performance. In chapter 6, we looked at lipoic acid and its role in reducing NADPH oxidative stress following repetitive neurotrauma. We found that lipoic acid reduces impulsive-like behavior and decreased cell death. Finally, in chapter 7 we discuss important strategies for improving preclinical models going forward and what needs to be investigated to improve our understanding of CTE. In this dissertation, we highlight important secondary injury cascades including blood brain barrier disruption, protein kinase C activity, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress that warrant further investigation for the development of novel treatment approaches for CTE

    Investigating Continuously Updated History Matching Using Smart Proxy (Surrogate Reservoir Model)

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    In oil and gas industry, quick decisions on reservoir management have a huge impact on business success. Typically, reservoir simulation is used to predict field performance and analyze uncertainties for assistance on decision making, while history matching is a key step of reservoir simulation, which is a process of model adjustment and simulation runs with different reservoir parameter settings until the difference between simulated data and historical data reaches minima. An efficient reservoir simulation model must be the one that can predict reservoir performance and update history matching results continuously by modifying reservoir model as long as new data becomes available. However, reservoir simulation can be very time consuming depending on the complexity of a reservoir model, and history matching is even more computational expensive since it requires lots of simulation runs. Nowadays, as intelligent technology advances in oil and gas industry, an initiation of a new era of real-time data acquisition begins. With the generation of high frequency data stream, how reservoir simulation should be performed in line with the real time data without compromise on the simulation time is a big concern for petroleum engineers.;In order to address this problem, lots of studies have been going on. Besides increasing computational power, varieties of research have focused on speeding up reservoir simulation process especially history matching by either implementing optimization algorithms or generating efficient proxy models. Nevertheless, there has not been a standard method recognized in reservoir simulation yet.;In this study, a novel methodology has been proposed as the first attempt to investigate the possibility of achieving continuously updated history matching by data-driven proxy model named Smart Proxy or Surrogate Reservoir Model (SRM). This research essentially involves detailing numerical reservoir modeling, continuously updated history matching and model modification process as new field data becomes available in a real case study. The objective is mainly focused on capability examination of Smart Proxy (SRM) in terms of continuously updated history matching.;According to the simulation results, the feasibility of Smart Proxy on a continuously updated history matching process has been proven successfully and efficiently. Importantly, tremendous time and efforts have been saved in the reservoir simulation process by using Smart Proxy compared with the traditional numerical reservoir simulation

    Long-term follow-up of patients treated with the edgewise crowned Herbst appliance in the mixed dentition

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    Objectives. Research has indicated that the bite jumping technique employed by the crowned Herbst appliance can be effective in correcting Class II skeletal abnormalities by promoting growth of the mandible and remodeling of the glenoid fossa. This research investigated the skeletal and dental alterations of Class II patients treated at an early age with the edgewise crowned Herbst appliance and evaluated the long term stability of those effects. Methods. Cephalometric analysis was performed for a treatment group consisting of 22 radiographs taken before phase I treatment (T1), immediately after Herbst removal during phase I treatment (T2), at the completion of phase I treatment (T3), prior to beginning of phase II orthodontic treatment (T4), and immediately following phase II orthodontic treatment (T5). Measurements were compared to a matched control sample of untreated Class II patients from the Bolton-Brush study. The difference in each variable between the treatment and control groups across the five time periods was analyzed for pooled subjects, and separately for male and female subjects. The differences between certain time points were analyzed to investigate treatment changes and their stability over time. For all time periods, the change in the values of the variables for pooled subjects, male subjects, and female subjects in the treatment group were compared to the change in the values of the variables for pooled subjects, male subjects, and female subjects in the control group, respectively. In total, 37 variables were evaluated for each group including sagittal variables, vertical variables, angular variables, and condyle/glenoid fossa variables. In addition, an evaluation of the overjet correction and molar relationship correction for the treatment groups and an evaluation of the net overjet correction and net molar relationship correction for the treatment vs. control groups at each time period for pooled subjects were performed. Results. Treatment of Class II patients treated with the crowned Herbst appliance in the early mixed dentition resulted in the following changes relative to normal growth: The forward movement of the maxillary base (OLp-A pt) was initially restrained after treatment (T2-T1) and gradually became more restrained in the short-term (T3-T1) and long-term (T4-T1) post-treatment periods. An even greater restraint was seen after phase II orthodontics (T5-T1). The mandibular base (OLp-Pg) was initially moved forward after treatment (T2-T1), however, a gradual relapse was seen in the short-term (T3-T1) and long-term (T4-T1) post-treatment periods. Additional relapse in a posterior direction was seen after phase II orthodontics (T5-T1). The maxillary molars (Ms-OLp) were initially distalized (T2-T1), relapsed slightly in the short-term post-retention period (T3-T1), and became distalized again in the long-term post-treatment period (T4-T1). The maxillary molars were mesialized during phase II orthodontic treatment (T5-T4) and most of the overall posterior molar movement was eliminated after this period (T5-T1). The mandibular molars (Mi-OLp) were initially mesialized after treatment (T2-T1), however gradual relapse occurred during the short-term post-treatment period (T3-T1) until they returned to their pre-treatment position after the long-term post-treatment period (T4-T1). They were mesialized again after phase II orthodontic treatment (T5-T1). The maxillary incisors (Is-OLp) moved backward and retroclined after treatment (T2-T1), then relapsed slightly during the short-term (T3-T1) and long-term (T4-T1) post-treatment period. A net posterior movement was maintained through the long-term post-treatment period (T4-T1). This posterior position of the maxillary incisor remained stable through phase II treatment (T5-T1). The mandibular incisors (Ii-OLp) moved forward and proclined after treatment (T2-T1), then relapsed to their pre-treatment position after the short-term post-treatment period (T3-T1). Forward movement and proclination occurred during the long-term retention period (T4-T3), giving a net forward movement and proclination after this period (T4-T1). The mandibular incisors returned to their pre-treatment position after phase II orthodontic treatment (T5-T1). A net overjet correction of 7.0 mm occurred after treatment (T2-T1), then relapsed in the short-term post-treatment period (T3-T1) until a relatively stable net overjet correction between 2.5-3.0mm was maintained over the long-term (T4-T1). The overjet correction remained stable through phase II treatment (T5-T1). A molar relationship correction of 6.6 mm occurred after treatment (T2-T1), then relapsed in the short-term post-treatment period (T3-T1) until a relatively stable net molar correction between 2.2-3.3mm was maintained over the long-term (T4-T1). The molar correction remained stable through phase II treatment (T5-T1). Relocation of the glenoid fossa occurred in an anterior and superior direction after treatment (T2-T1) and this relative change in position was stable over the long term (T4-T1). Restriction of the downward and backward movement of the fossa was observed and might additionally contribute to Class II correction. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that early treatment with the edgewise crowned Herbst appliance can achieve overjet correction and molar relationship correction that remains stable over the long-term. However, the skeletal and dental contributions to this overjet and molar correction shift over time with decreasing skeletal contribution and increasing dental compensation. During phase II orthodontic treatment, an increased skeletal contribution to overjet and molar relationship correction occurs

    Model Development and Incorporation of GIS Tools for Floodplain Management

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    Floodplain management consists of efforts to reduce flood damage to critical infrastructure and to protect the life and health of individuals from flooding. A major component of this effort is the monitoring of flood control structures such as dams because the potential failure of these structures may have catastrophic consequences. In order to prepare for these threats, engineers utilize inundation maps that model the flood resulting from high river stages. To create the maps, the structure and river systems are modeled using engineering software programs, and hydrologic events are used to simulate the conditions leading to the failure of the structure. The output data is then exported to other software programs for the creation of inundation maps. While the computer programs for this process have been established, the processing procedures vary and yield inconsistent results. Thus, these processing methods need to be examined to determine the functionality of each in floodplain management practices.;The main purpose of this work was to develop a more integrated, accurate, and precise graphical interface tool for interpretation by floodplain engineers and emergency responders. To accomplish this purpose, a potential dam failure was simulated and analyzed for a candidate river system using two processing methods: ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles. The work scope involved performing a comparison of the outputs, which revealed that both procedures yielded similar inundations for single river reaches. However, the results of this study indicated key differences when examining outputs for large river systems. Based on criteria involving the hydrologic accuracy and effects on infrastructure, the Terrain Tiles inundation surpassed the ArcToolbox inundation in terms of following topography and calculating flow rates and flood extents at confluences, bends, and tributary streams. Thus, the Terrain Tiles procedure is a more accurate representation of flood extents for use by floodplain engineers and emergency responders

    Plant litter decomposition in mitigated and reference wetlands

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    Decomposition of plant litter in wetlands influences many processes and is driven by a complex web of interacting forces. This makes litter decomposition a useful measure of wetland function and a possible means of judging wetland functional replacement in compensatory mitigation projects. However, the web of interacting forces that intricately connect decomposition to wetland function also make it difficult to identify the importance of individual variables. In order for decomposition to be used as a metric to judge wetland function, its driving forces must be better understood.;This study examined some of the variables that drive decomposition. Specifically, decomposition rates were studied in-depth at 3 mitigated and 3 reference wetlands, and more broadly at 8 created and 8 reference wetlands, located in the Allegheny Mountain ecoregion of West Virginia. Decomposition rates were measured using the litter bag technique and incorporated five different litter types. Four types of single species bags were created from common wetland litter species and included broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia L.), common rush (Juncus effusus L.), brookside alder (Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd.), and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). The fifth litter type was created from a mix of common rush, brookside alder, and reed canary grass. Environmental measurements were taken throughout the study to determine their effect on decomposition and invertebrates were collected from litter bags to study the importance of biotic communities. Fungal biomass was estimated by measuring the amount of ergosterol extracted from leaf litter.;Decomposition rate constants were similar between mitigated and natural wetlands. Reed canary grass had the fastest decomposition rate constant and broadleaf cattail had the slowest. Of the environmental parameters tested, models that included air (AT) and soil temperature (ST), water pH (WPH), hydroperiod (HP, proportion of days flooded), and the number of transitions between flooded and exposed conditions (FET) were best able to predict decomposition rate constants. Overall, AT, ST, and WPH were directly related to decomposition rate constant, while HP was inversely related. The FET was directly or inversely related to the decomposition rate constant depending on the litter type.;For biological variables, invertebrate taxonomic groups had the strongest associations with decomposition trends compared to functional feeding groups or invertebrate metrics (abundance, richness, diversity). Shredders, collector/gatherers, and omnivores were more strongly associated with early phases of decomposition, while oligochaetes and omnivores were most strongly associated with trends in decomposition during the later phase. Ergosterol levels indicated that fungi colonized bags quickly, peaked at 35 days, and then decreased and leveled off by 300 days, but were not useful predictors of decomposition rate.;This study helps demonstrate the importance of both environmental and biological variables in naturally functioning systems and ultimately helps to improve wetland mitigation by expanding our understanding of wetland function

    Global mindedness and dispositions towards diversity in the classroom

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    This study examined global mindedness and dispositions towards diversity in the classroom between two groups of teacher candidates. One group had obtained a bachelors degree before starting the teacher education program while the other group started the teacher education program without a college degree. The global mindedness scale (GMS) and the Teacher Multicultural Attitude Scale developed by Hett (1993) and Ponterrotto (2004) respectively were used for the study.;The study was guided by four research questions and four corresponding hypotheses. Univariate t-tests were use to analyze data for research questions one and two to determine the difference between the mean scores of the two groups of teacher candidates. For research question three, a correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between teacher candidates\u27 global mindedness and dispositions towards diversity in the classroom. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the interactions between the demographic variables and the latent variables of global mindedness and dispositions towards diversity.;Though both groups of teacher candidates were positively disposed to global mindedness and diversity in the classroom, the study found that teacher candidates with a prior college degree showed a more positive orientation towards global mindedness and diversity issues in the classroom. The study also found a positive relationship between global mindedness and disposition toward diversity in the classroom. Thus the more globally minded teacher candidates were the more positively they were disposed to diversity issues in the classroom and vice versa. Finally, the study found that the demographic variables of age, teaching experience, travel/study abroad experience were positively related to global mindedness and disposition towards diversity in the classroom
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