274 research outputs found

    Expandiendo nuestros horizontes conceptuales : El pasaje de una "vieja" a una "nueva izquierda" en América Latina en los años sesenta

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    Fil: Zolov, Eric. Stony Brook University

    Che Guevara's Message to the Tricontinental. Crossroads of a New Left

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    A finales de 1965, el Che Guevara envió un “Mensaje” al quinto encuentro de la Conferencia por la Solidaridad de los Pueblos de África, Asia y América Latina, mejor conocida como la Conferencia Tricontinental, llevada a cabo en Cuba en enero de 1966. En su celebración explícita a la violencia, las palabras del Che encapsularon el lenguaje y la estrategia de lo que se llamó la “Nueva Izquierda”. Sin embargo, la Conferencia Tricontinental no logró anticipar la agitación que provocarían los movimientos universitarios de 1968, los cuales enlazaron el llamado de Guevara hacia “dos, tres, muchos Vietnam” con un componente distinto y propio de la sensibilidad de la Nueva Izquierda: la irreverencia contracultural contra la rigidez ideológica de todo tipo. El siguiente trabajo examina brevemente la genealogía y los conflictos geopolíticos que rodearon la puesta en escena de la Conferencia Tricontinental de 1966, poniendo especial énfasis en el rol de Lázaro Cárdenas, ex presidente revolucionario mexicano.At the end of 1965, the Che Guevara sent a "Message" to the fifth meeting of the Conference for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, better known as the Conference Tricontinental, carried out in Cuba in January of 1966. In his explicit celebration to the violence, the words of the Che encased the language and the strategy of what was called the " New Left side ". Nevertheless, the Conference Tricontinental did not manage to anticipate the agitation that there would provoke the university movements of 1968, which connected called of Guevara towards "Two, three, many Vietnam" with a different and own component of the sensibility of the New Left side: the alternative disrespect against the ideological inflexibility of all kinds. This work examines brief the genealogy and the geopolitical conflicts that surrounded the putting in scene of the Conference Tricontinental of 1966, putting special emphasis in the role of Lázaro Cárdenas, revolutionary Mexican ex-president

    Expandiendo nuestros horizontes conceptuales: el pasaje de una "vieja" a una "nueva izquierda" en América Latina en los años sesenta

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    Acercar los trabajos del historiador norteamericano Eric Zolov a los lectores de habla hispana interesados en la historia reciente constituye a la vez un placer y una necesidad. Por varios motivos, los trabajos de Zolov se han destacado por despejar el camino para la reconceptualización de las relaciones entre cultura y política en los años sesenta del siglo XX. Siendo México su foco principal de atención, sus líneas de investigación e hipótesis principales trascienden con mucho el “caso” para iluminar posibilidades de indagación y reflexión a escala latinoamericana. Publicado en 1999, el primer libro de Zolov, Refried Elvis: The Rise of the Mexican Counterculture, ya colocaba el entrecruzamiento entre cultura y política en el centro de la mira y lo hacía de forma más que novedosa. Tomando como eje la emergencia y las transformaciones de una contracultura (juvenil) en los años sesenta mexicanos, Zolov no solamente ofreció una historia formidable de roqueros y “jipitecas”—y de los modos en que se vinculaban y apropiaban de un repertorio transnacional—sino que también abrió el concepto de política para interrogar qué nos dice esa contracultura sobre la crisis y reconfiguración de una cultura patriarcal en los niveles familiares y político-estatales. Zolov leyó a esa contracultura en su relación generalmente de oposición a la política patriarcal y la entendió como un espacio político—esto es, como parte de relaciones de fuerza y disputas de poder en sus sentidos más capilares. A partir de esa interpretación, Zolov ponía en cuestión formas tajantes de separar los términos cultura y política—separación que las izquierdas latinoamericanas en general y la mexicana en particular delinearon a la hora de interpretar formas de sociabilidad y sensibilidades que les eran ajenas, como por ejemplo las ligadas a la cultura del rock. El artículo que aquí se traduce recupera buena parte de esas temáticas y preocupaciones, pero esta vez el énfasis de Zolov está puesto en revisitar y eventualmente ampliar las nociones de “nueva izquierda”. Para aquellos interesados en la historia reciente latinoamericana, el artículo tiene la potencialidad de generar controversias tanto como, a mi juicio, de proveer un soplo de aire fresco. En este último sentido, Zolov nos invita a desnaturalizar una expresión—la de “nueva izquierda”—que en ocasiones se utiliza como un hecho dado. En ese movimiento, Zolov introduce la pregunta crucial en torno a las similitudes y diferencias entre las “nuevas izquierdas” entendidas como fenómenos emergentes de culturas políticas nacionales y/o como fenómenos transnacionales. De igual importancia, Zolov nuevamente hace visibles las interconexiones entre supuestas esferas separadas—por el caso, la cultura y la política—ya sea en el marco de biografías personales o experiencias de cohortes generacionales. Una historia cultural de la política, una historia política de la cultura: poco importan las etiquetas cuando la historia es sustancialmente buena y relevante. Sin lugar a dudas, el trabajo de Zolov así lo demuestra. (Valeria Manzano, traductora)Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educació

    Dr. Benjamen Zolov

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    https://digitalcommons.portlandlibrary.com/jewish_oral_history/1043/thumbnail.jp

    Modulation of synaptic function by VAC14, a protein that regulates the phosphoinositides PI(3,5)P 2 and PI(5)P

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/102191/1/embj2012200.pdfhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/102191/2/embj2012200-sup-0001.pdfhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/102191/3/embj2012200-reviewer_comments.pd

    Fine tuning Exo2, a small molecule inhibitor of secretion and retrograde trafficking pathways in mammalian cells

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    The small molecule 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1]benzothieno[2,3- d]pyrimidin-4-yl)hydrazone (Exo2) stimulates morphological changes at the mammalian Golgi and trans-Golgi network that are virtually indistinguishable from those induced by brefeldin A. Both brefeldin A and Exo2 protect cells from intoxication by Shiga(-like) toxins by acting on other targets that operate at the early endosome, but do so at the cost of high toxicity to target cells. The advantage of Exo2 is that it is much more amenable to chemical modification and here we report a range of Exo2 analogues produced by modifying the tetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidine core, the vanillin moiety and the hydrazone bond that links these two. These compounds were examined for the morphological changes they stimulated at the Golgi stack, the trans Golgi network and the transferrin receptor-positive early endosomes and this activity correlated with their inherent toxicity towards the protein manufacturing ability of the cell and their protective effect against toxin challenge. We have developed derivatives that can separate organelle morphology, target specificity, innate toxicity and toxin protection. Our results provide unique compounds with low toxicity and enhanced specificity to unpick the complexity of membrane trafficking networks

    A cell-permeable tool for analysing APP intracellular domain function and manipulation of PIKfyve activity

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    The mechanisms for regulating PIKfyve complex activity are currently emerging. The PIKfyve complex, consisting of the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve (also known as FAB1), VAC14 and FIG4, is required for the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). PIKfyve function is required for homeostasis of the endo/lysosomal system and is crucially implicated in neuronal function and integrity, as loss of function mutations in the PIKfyve complex lead to neurodegeneration in mouse models and human patients. Our recent work has shown that the intracellular domain of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), a molecule central to the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease binds to VAC14 and enhances PIKfyve function. Here we utilise this recent advance to create an easy-to-use tool for increasing PIKfyve activity in cells. We fused APP's intracellular domain (AICD) to the HIV TAT domain, a cell permeable peptide allowing proteins to penetrate cells. The resultant TAT-AICD fusion protein is cell permeable and triggers an increase of PI(3,5)P2. Using the PI(3,5)P2 specific GFP-ML1Nx2 probe we show that cell-permeable AICD alters PI(3,5)P2 dynamics. TAT-AICD also provides partial protection from pharmacological inhibition of PIKfyve. All three lines of evidence show that the APP intracellular domain activates the PIKfyve complex in cells, a finding that is important for our understanding of the mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    Identifying a novel functional domain within the p115 tethering factor required for Golgi ribbon assembly and membrane trafficking

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    The tethering factor p115 has been shown to facilitate Golgi biogenesis and membrane traffic in cells in culture. However, the role of p115 within an intact animal is largely unknown. Here, we document that RNAi-mediated depletion of p115 in C. elegans causes accumulation of the yolk protein (YP170) in body cavity and the retention of the yolk receptor RME-2 in the ER and the Golgi within oocytes.Structure-function analyses of p115 have identified two homology (H1-2) regions within the N-terminal globular head and the coiled-coil 1 (CC1) domain as essential for p115 function. We identify a novel C-terminal domain of p115 as necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and cargo trafficking. We show that p115 mutants lacking the fourth CC domain (CC4) act in a dominant negative manner to disrupt Golgi and prevent cargo trafficking in cells containing endogenous p115. Furthermore, using RNAi-mediated "replacement" strategy we show that CC4 is necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and membrane trafficking in cells depleted of endogenous p115.p115 has been shown to bind a subset of ER-Golgi SNAREs through CC1 and CC4 domains (Shorter et al., 2002). Our findings show that CC4 is required for p115 function and suggest that both the CC1 and the CC4 SNARE-binding motifs may participate in p115-mediated membrane tethering

    COG Complex Complexities : Detailed Characterization of a Complete Set of HEK293T Cells Lacking Individual COG Subunits

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    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex is an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) that is crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. The COG complex interacts with core vesicle docking and fusion machinery at the Golgi; however, its exact mechanism of action is still an enigma. Previous studies of COG complex were limited to the use of CDGII (Congenital disorders of glycosylation type II)-COG patient fibroblasts, siRNA mediated knockdowns, or protein relocalization approaches. In this study we have used the CRISPR approach to generate HEK293T knock-out (KO) cell lines missing individual COG subunits. These cell lines were characterized for glycosylation and trafficking defects, cell proliferation rates, stability of COG subunits, localization of Golgi markers, changes in Golgi structure, and N-glycan profiling. We found that all KO cell lines were uniformly deficient in cis/medial-Golgi glycosylation and each had nearly abolished binding of Cholera toxin. In addition, all cell lines showed defects in Golgi morphology, retrograde trafficking and sorting, sialylation and fucosylation, but severities varied according to the affected subunit. Lobe A and Cog6 subunit KOs displayed a more severely distorted Golgi structure, while Cog2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 knock outs had the most hypo glycosylated form of Lamp2. These results led us to conclude that every subunit is essential for COG complex function in Golgi trafficking, though to varying extents. We believe that this study and further analyses of these cells will help further elucidate the roles of individual COG subunits and bring a greater understanding to the class of MTCs as a whole
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