180,615 research outputs found

    Documentary film and ethical foodscapes : three takes on Caribbean sugar

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    This article demonstrates how certain stories, voices and values around agro-food networks can be made powerful by documentary film. Our central argument is that documentaries mobilize ethics by presenting a partial and affective account of their subject matter, which makes their audience feel differently about the social relations that underpin the production of food and acts as a focal point for media scrutiny and political interventions. We focus attention on three documentaries about Caribbean sugar to explore multiple and disparate ethical claims made about the farmers, workers and communities that embody Caribbean sugar industries. Through a comparison of the three documentaries, we chart how the production and distribution of these films have entailed quite different ethical narratives, encounters and interventions. A key finding is that the context in which films are received is just as important as the content they deliver. The paper concludes with a guarded endorsement for using documentary film to transform the unequal life conditions experienced in the global food system, stressing the need for empirically-grounded critique of the context of documentaries and suggesting the important role that geographers might play as interlocutors in their reception

    The European Union in the World — A Community of Values

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    These are momentous times in Europe. The Euro has been successfully introduced, the enlargement negotiations are approaching their climax, and the European Convention (“Convention”) is moving towards the drafting of a constitution for a new, continent-wide political entity. At the same time, unrest is manifest, particularly in two areas. On the one hand, many of our citizens, and not just the political elites, are dissatisfied with Europe\u27s performance on the world stage and are concerned about the maintenance of peace and security within the Union. In these areas they would like to see a strengthened, more effective entity-- “more Europe.” On the other hand, their disenchantment with the long reach of European Union (“EU” or “Union”) regulation in the first pillar area of economic policy is growing. The feeling of loss of local control over their destiny and a vague feeling of potential loss of identity within an ever more centralized polity is palpable. Here, they want “less Europe.” In the outside world, change is also the order of the day. The ice-sheet of bipolarity, which overlaid and hid the complexity of international relations during the Cold War, is breaking up at an ever-increasing speed and revealing a world in which two paradigms are competing to become the underlying ordering principles for the new century. The traditional paradigm of interacting Nation States, each pursuing its own separate interests, with alliances allowing the small to compete with the large, is alive and well, and its proponents like Machiavelli or Churchill continue to be in vogue in the literature of international relations and the rhetoric of world leaders. At the same time, there is a school of thought which points to the growing economic and ecological interdependence of our societies and the necessity for new forms of global governance to complement national action. It is also becoming abundantly clear that the concept of a “Nation State” is often a fiction, positing as it does an identity between the citizens of a State and the members of a culturally homogenous society. For both reasons, the concept of the Nation State as the principal actor on the world stage, is called into question. The experience of the Union with the sharing of State sovereignty is clearly related to the second paradigm and also to the EU\u27s firm support for the development of the United Nations (“U.N.”) as well as other elements of multilateral governance. It would hardly be wise to suggest that any foreign policy, and certainly not that of the EU, should be based only on this paradigm. Given the recurrent threats to security, which seem to be part of the human condition expressed by some as the “inevitability of war”--the defense of territorial integrity; action against threats of aggression; and resistance to crimes against humanity such as genocide--the ability to conduct a security policy based much more on the old paradigm of interacting interests will continue to be required. That the EU needs to develop such a capability will be taken here as a given. Such a crisis-management capability will be essential to the Union, but will be distinguished here from the more long-term elements of foreign policy, which can be thought of as being designed to reduce the need for crisis management in the context of a security policy to a minimum. The crisis-management area of policy will not be treated further here. The thesis of this Essay is that the same set of political concepts can serve as a guide to the future internal development of the EU and as the basis of such a long-term foreign policy. Furthermore, it suggests that neither should be seen in terms of the balancing of interests but rather, as the expression of a small list of fundamental values. The list is as follows: (1) the rule of law as the basis for relations between members of society; (2) the interaction between the democratic process and entrenched human rights in political decision-making; (3) the operation of competition within a market economy as the source of increasing prosperity; (4) the anchoring of the principle of solidarity among all members of society alongside that of the liberty of the individual; (5) the adoption of the principle of sustainability of all economic development; and (6) the preservation of separate identities and the maintenance of cultural diversity within society. These values can be seen as the answer to the question posed both, by citizens of the Union and by our fellow citizens of the world: “What does the EU stand for?” In exploring these values we should, however, remember that in the real world there will be occasions on which Realpolitik will intrude and the interest-based paradigm will prevail

    An Extensive Analysis of the Business and Economic Climate of McMinnville, Oregon from 1895-1910

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    This report provides an analysis of the dominant industries and consumer culture of McMinnville, Oregon during the time period 1895 to 1910. It provides an array of historic photographs, maps, advertisements, census information, anecdotes, and excavation data to formulate a unique and extensive review of McMinnville\u27s business and economic history during a primary period of growth

    European Union Acts project MIDAS: objectives and progress to date

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    Introduction to the ACTS program: Advanced Communications and Technology and Services, known simply as ACTS, is one of the specific programmes of the "Fourth Framework Programme of European Community activities in the field of research and technological development and demonstration (1994-1998)". It provides the main focus of the European Unions research effort to accelerate deployment of advanced communications infrastructures and services, and is complemented by extensive European research in the areas of information technology and telematics. The stated objectives of ACTS are to "develop advanced communication systems and services for economic development and social cohesion within Europe, taking account of the rapid evolution of technologies, the changing regulatory situation and opportunities for development of advanced transeuropean networks and services". Within ACTS, the emphasis of the work has shifted from the exploration of fundamental concepts and detailed system engineering, as it had been in earlier programs such as RACE (Research and development in Advanced Communication technologies for Europe), to issues relating to implementation of advanced systems and generic services, and applications which demonstrate the potential use of advanced communications in Europe. A key feature of the ACTS program is that the research be undertaken in the context of real-world trials. Work within the program is divided into six technical areas: Interactive digital multimedia services, photonic technologies, high speed networking, mobility and personal communication networks, intelligence in networks and services and quality, safety and security of communication systems and services. The total EU budget for the ACTS program is approximately 670 MECU, covering around 160 projects, with over 1000 individual organisations participating within the program, thereby illustrating the scale of the activities. MIDAS is one of five projects in the technical area of photonic technologies concerned with high speed transmission, the others being ESTHER, UPGRADE, HIGHWAY and SPEED, each concerned with various aspects or approaches to the development of 40 GBit/s transmission systems within the European arena. A full list of project descriptions and objectives, as well as those of the ACTS program as a whole, are to be found in Ref [1]. The MIDAS consortium consists of the following organisations: Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden), CSELT (Italy), Thomson LCR (France), United Monolithic Semiconductor (France), Telia (Sweden), Kings College London (UK), University of Athens (Greece), ORC University of Southampton (UK). The project started in September 1995 and is currently scheduled to finish in September 1998

    Objecting (to) Infrastructure: Ecopolitics at the Ukrainian Ends of the Danube

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    In southern Ukraine, two hydraulic infrastructures continue to exist despite environmentalist campaigns that have exposed them as fragile, broken or unprofitable. The Danube-Dnister Irrigation Project (DDIS), a Soviet mega-project that diverted water from the Danube and turned the Sasyk estuary into a reservoir, receives state funding despite a 1994 ban on its use for irrigation. The Bystre Shipping Canal, built in 2004 despite domestic and international opposition, is losing money but continues to operate. These cases exemplify the material politics of infrastructuring in which infrastructure is understood as an antagonistic process of assembling networks of humans and nonhumans rather than a fixed facility. This approach helps explain how the confluence of unruly coastal matters and the politics of expertise have facilitated these shipping and irrigation infrastructures’ re-embedding in bureaucratic networks. These cases show that obduracy and fragility, as well as visibility and invisibility––conditions that figure prominently in infrastructure studies––should be considered in terms of oscillation rather than as ontologically distinct or static conditions. This analysis also highlights the limits of the modernist search for scientific certainty in resolving environmental conflicts in Ukraine, and some possibilities to experiment politically with new decision-making procedures. This account can thus serve as a “story that intervenes” by pointing beyond reform impulses that re-enact modernist narratives of progress within a strict nature-society divide

    MEDIN Feasibility Study : archiving oil and gas industry site survey data

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    This report was commissioned by the Marine Environmental and Information Network (MEDIN) to investigate the feasibility of collecting oil and gas industry site surveys conducted on the UKCS (UK Continental Shelf) for archive in the MEDIN DAC (Data Archive Centre) network. The archive of three principle data types is explored; information about legacy site surveys, catalogues of information about data products associated with site surveys and actual site survey data, which may include a survey report and enclosures and/or a selection of data e.g. side-scan or multibeam, sample descriptions and seismic profiles. The merits of the collection of these data types are explored alongside the cost implications, from both an oil and gas industry contractor’s and a marine geoscientist’s perspective, thereby enabling MEDIN to better understand and make decisions as to which data to concentrate on. The principles and proposed procedures for carrying out the collection of these data types are outlined however the practical details of these will require agreement should any decision be made to proceed. At this stage a further thorough detailed scope will be required in order to formulate procedures, qualify numbers, define activities, identify resources and plan timescales. The time period for the collection of legacy site surveys will require consideration i.e. how far back it is feasible to collect this information, and whether requests should be phased to include surveys acquired within predetermined time intervals. The size of the actual site survey data holdings, the storage capacity required to archive these and the amount of work involved in processing this data into useable and useful formats will require review. Some of these issues may need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. The procedures themselves will require regular review dependent on the response i.e. the volume, types and condition of data received

    Polypropylene fibres within concrete with regard to heat induced spalling and reduction in compressive strength

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    The paper examines the effect of various polypropylene fibre additions (Types 1 and 2 and different fibre volumes) to concrete with regard to explosive spalling when subject to high temperatures similar to that experienced in building or tunnel fires. The pilot study used to determine an appropriate heat source for the test showed concrete to be a significant insulator and fire protection for structural members. Explosive spalling was shown to be reduced with the use of polypropylene fibres but the final compressive strength of concrete was significantly reduced and had little residual structural value after a 2 hour period of heating

    Traces of heat operators on Riemannian foliations

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    We consider the basic heat operator on functions on a Riemannian foliation of a compact, Riemannian manifold, and we show that the trace of this operator has a particular short time asymptotic expansion. The coefficients in this expansion are obtainable from local transverse geometric invariants - functions computable by analyzing the manifold in an arbitrarily small neighborhood of a leaf closure. Using this expansion, we prove some results about the spectrum of the basic Laplacian, such as the analogue of Weyl's asymptotic formula. Also, we explicitly calculate the first two nontrivial coefficients of the expansion for special cases such as codimension two foliations and foliations with regular closure.Comment: 37 pages, citations update
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