948 research outputs found

    Accretion in Brown Dwarfs: an Infrared View

    Full text link
    This paper presents a study of the accretion properties of 19 very low mass objects (Mstar .01-0.1 Msun) in the regions Chamaeleon I and rho-Oph For 8 objects we obtained high resolution Halpha profiles and determined mass accretion rate Macc and accretion luminosity Lacc. Pabeta is detected in emission in 7 of the 10 rho-Oph objects, but only in one in Cha I. Using objects for which we have both a determination of Lacc from Halpha and a Pabeta detection, we show that the correlation between the Pabeta luminosity and luminosity Lacc, found by Muzerolle et al. (1998) for T Tauri stars in Taurus, extends to objects with mass approx 0.03 Msun; L(Pab) can be used to measure Lacc also in the substellar regime. The results were less conclusive for Brgamma, which was detected only in 2 objects, neither of which had an Halpha estimate of Macc. Using the relation between L(Pab) and Lacc we determined the accretion rate for all the objects in our sample (including those with no Halpha spectrum), more than doubling the number of substellar objects with known Macc. When plotted as a function of the mass of the central object together with data from the literature, our results confirm the trend of lower Macc for lower Mstar, although with a large spread. Some of the spread is probably due to an age effect; our very young objects in rho-Oph have on average an accretion rate at least one order of magnitude higher than objects of similar mass in older regions. As a side product, we found that the width of Halpha measured at 10% peak intensity is not only a qualitative indicator of accretion, but can be used to obtain a quantitative estimate of Macc over a large mass range, from T Tauri stars to brown dwarfs. Finally, we found that some of our objects show evidence of mass-loss.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures, A&A in pres

    Accretion in the Rho-Oph pre-main sequence stars

    Full text link
    The aim of this paper is to provide a measurement of the mass accretion rate in a large, complete sample of objects in the core of the star forming region Rho-Oph. The sample includes most of the objects (104 out of 111) with evidence of a circumstellar disk from mid-infrared photometry; it covers a stellar mass range from about 0.03 to 3 Msun and it is complete to a limiting mass of ~0.05 Msun. We used J and K-band spectra to derive the mass accretion rate of each object from the intensity of the hydrogen recombination lines, Pab or Brg. For comparison, we also obtained similar spectra of 35 diskless objects. The results show that emission in these lines is only seen in stars with disks, and can be used as an indicator of accretion. However, the converse does not hold, as about 50% of our disk objects do not have detectable line emission. The measured accretion rates show a strong correlation with the mass of the central object (Macc ~ Mstar^1.8+-0.2) and a large spread, of two orders of magnitude at least, for any interval of Mstar. A comparison with existing data for Taurus shows that the objects in the two regions have similar behaviour, at least for objects more massive than ~0.1Msun. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.Comment: A&A in press, 16 pages including tables, 5 figure

    The 2008 extreme outburst of the young eruptive variable star Ex Lupi

    Get PDF
    In early 2008, the young low-mass star EX Lupi, the prototype of the EXor class of eruptive variables, optically brightened by over five magnitudes for a period of 7 months. The previous time a change of such amplitude had been observed in EX Lup was over 50 years ago. In this Letter we present new optical and near-IR high resolution spectroscopy of EX~Lup during the 2008 outburst. We investigate the physical characteristics of the outburst both soon after it began and some four months later, and consider the energetics and kinematics observed. Emission line strengths, widths, and profiles changed significantly between the two observations. Also, modeling of the 2.2935 um CO overtone bandhead emission suggests that an inner gap in the circumstellar gas disk around the star may be present and it is from the inner edge of the gas disk that the CO overtone emission probably arises. We derive a mass accretion luminosity and rate during the extreme outburst of ~2+-0.5~Lsun and ~2+-0.5x10^-7 Msun yr^-1, respectively, which suggests that this outburst was indeed one of the strongest witnessed in EX Lup, yet not as strong as those observed in FU Orionis stars.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Modeling the Halpha line emission around classical T Tauri stars using magnetospheric accretion and disk wind models

    Full text link
    Spectral observations of classical T Tauri stars show a wide range of line profiles, many of which reveal signs of matter inflow and outflow. Halpha is the most commonly observed line profile due to its intensity, and it is highly dependent on the characteristics of the surrounding environment of these stars. Our aim is to analyze how the Halpha line profile is affected by the various parameters of our model which contains both the magnetospheric and disk wind contributions to the Halpha flux. We used a dipolar axisymmetric stellar magnetic field to model the stellar magnetosphere and a modified Blandford & Payne model was used in our disk wind region. A three-level atom with continuum was used to calculate the required Hydrogen level populations. We use the Sobolev approximation and a ray-by-ray method to calculate the integrated line profile. Through an extensive study of the model parameter space, we have investigated the contribution of many of the model parameters on the calculated line profiles. Our results show that the Halpha line is strongly dependent on the densities and temperatures inside the magnetosphere and the disk wind region. The bulk of the flux comes, most of the time, from the magnetospheric component for standard classical T Tauri stars parameters, but the disk wind contribution becomes more important as the mass accretion rate, the temperatures and densities inside the disk wind increase. We have also found that most of the disk wind contribution to the Halpha line is emitted at the innermost region of the disk wind. Models that take into consideration both inflow and outflow of matter are a necessity to fully understand and describe classical T Tauri stars.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics. Revised version with English correction

    Photometric determination of the mass accretion rates of pre-main sequence stars. I. Method and application to the SN1987A field

    Full text link
    We have developed and successfully tested a new self-consistent method to reliably identify pre-main sequence (PMS) objects actively undergoing mass accretion in a resolved stellar population, regardless of their age. The method does not require spectroscopy and combines broad-band V and I photometry with narrow-band Halpha imaging to: (1) identify all stars with excess Halpha emission; (2) derive their Halpha luminosity L(Halpha); (3) estimate the Halpha emission equivalent width; (4) derive the accretion luminosity L_acc from L(Halpha); and finally (5) obtain the mass accretion rate M_acc from L_acc and the stellar parameters (mass and radius). By selecting stars with photometric accuracy in Halpha better than 15%, the statistical uncertainty on the derived M_acc is typically <17% and is dictated by the precision of the Halpha photometry. Systematic uncertainties, of up to a factor of 3 on the value of M_acc, are caused by our incomplete understanding of the physics of the accretion process and affect all determinations of the mass accretion rate, including those based on a spectroscopic Halpha line analysis. As an application of our method, we study a field of 9.16 arcmin2 around SN1987A, using existing HST photometry. We identify as bona-fide PMS stars a total of 133 objects with a Halpha excess above the 4 sigma level and a median age of 13.5 Myr. Their median mass accretion rate of 2.6x10-8 Msolar/yr is in excellent agreement with previous determinations based on the U-band excess of the stars in this field, and with the value measured for G-type PMS stars in the Milky Way. Their L_acc shows a strong dependence on their distance from a group of hot massive stars in the field and suggests that the UV radiation of the latter is rapidly eroding the circumstellar discs around PMS stars.Comment: 18 pages, 18 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Evidence for accretion in a nearby, young brown dwarf

    Full text link
    We report on the discovery of the young, nearby, brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112. The object has a spectral type of M7.5, it shows Li absorption and signatures of accretion, which implies that it still has a disk and suggests an age below 10 Myr. The space motion vector and position on the sky indicate that the brown dwarf is probably a member of the \sim20 Myr old Tuc-Hor association, or that it may be an ejected member of the \sim12 Myr old \beta Pic association, both would imply that 2MASS J0041353-562112 may in fact be older than 10 Myr. No accreting star or brown dwarf was previously known in these associations. Assuming an age of 10 Myr, the brown dwarf has a mass of about 30 MJup_{\rm Jup} and is located at 35 pc distance. The newly discovered object is the closest accreting brown dwarf known. Its membership to an association older than 10 Myr implies that either disks in brown dwarfs can survive as long as in more massive stars, perhaps even longer, or that star formation in Tuc-Hor or \beta Pic occured more recently than previously thought. The history and evolution of this object can provide new fundamental insight into the formation process of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets.Comment: emulateapj version, online version at http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-4357/702/2/L119

    The Evolution of Circumstellar Disks Surrounding Intermediate Mass Stars: IC 1805

    Get PDF
    We report the results of a study of the intermediate and high mass stars in the young, rich star-forming complex IC 1805, based on a combination of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared photometry, and classification spectra. These data provide the basis for characterizing the masses and ages for stars more massive than ~2 Msun and enable a study of the frequency and character of circumstellar disks associated with intermediate- and high-mass stars. Optically thick accretion disks among stars with masses 2 < M/Msun <4 are rare (~2% of members) and absent among more massive stars. A larger fraction (~10%) of stars with masses 2 < M/Msun < 4 appear to be surrounded by disks that have evolved from the initial optically thick accretion phase. We identify four classes of such disks. These classes are based on spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of excess emsission above photospheric levels: disks that are (1) optically thin based on the magnitude of the observed excess emission from 2 to 24 um; (2) optically thin in their inner regions (r< 20 AU) and optically thick in their outer regions; (3) exhibit empty inner regions (r < 10 AU) and optically thin emission in their outer regions; and (4) exhibit empty inner regions and optically thick outer regions. We discuss, and assess the merits and liabilities of, proposed explanations for disks exhibiting these SED types and suggest additional observations that would test these proposals.Comment: Accepted to Ap

    Characterizing the IYJ Excess Continuum Emission in T Tauri Stars

    Get PDF
    We present the first characterization of the excess continuum emission of accreting T Tauri stars between optical and near-infrared wavelengths. With nearly simultaneous spectra from 0.48 to 2.4 microns acquired with HIRES and NIRSPEC on Keck and SpeX on the IRTF, we find significant excess continuum emission throughout this region, including the I, Y, and J bands, which are usually thought to diagnose primarily photospheric emission. The IYJ excess correlates with the excess in the V band, attributed to accretion shocks in the photosphere, and the excess in the K band, attributed to dust in the inner disk near the dust sublimation radius, but it is too large to be an extension of the excess from these sources. The spectrum of the excess emission is broad and featureless, suggestive of blackbody radiation with a temperature between 2200 and 5000 K. The luminosity of the IYJ excess is comparable to the accretion luminosity inferred from modeling the blue and ultraviolet excess emission and may require reassessment of disk accretion rates. The source of the IYJ excess is unclear. In stars of low accretion rate, the size of the emitting region is consistent with cooler material surrounding small hot accretion spots in the photosphere. However, for stars with high accretion rates, the projected area is comparable to or exceeds that of the stellar surface. We suggest that at least some of the IYJ excess emission arises in the dust-free gas inside the dust sublimation radius in the disk.Comment: Accepted to ApJ, 31 pages, 21 figure

    Demographics of Transition Objects

    Full text link
    The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a tighter relationship between disc masses and stellar accretion rates, with a slope between the two quantities that is close to the value of unity expected in simple theories of disc accretion.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, to appear in MNRA
    corecore