42,604 research outputs found

    The rotation of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

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    The evolution of angular momentum is a key to our understanding of star formation and stellar evolution. The rotational evolution of solar-mass stars is mostly controlled by magnetic interaction with the circumstellar disc and angular momentum loss through stellar winds. Major differences in the internal structure of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs -- they are believed to be fully convective throughout their lives, and thus should not operate a solar-type dynamo -- may lead to major differences in the rotation and activity of these objects. Here, we report on observational studies to understand the rotational evolution of the very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, Proceedings for IAU Symposium No. 243, 2007, 'Star-disk interaction in young stars

    Rotation and variability of young very low mass objects

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    Variability studies are an important tool to investigate key properties of stars and brown dwarfs. From photometric monitoring we are able to obtain information about rotation and magnetic activity, which are expected to change in the mass range below 0.3 solar masses, since these fully convective objects cannot host a solar-type dynamo. On the other hand, spectroscopic variability information can be used to obtain a detailed view on the accretion process in very young objects. In this paper, we report about our observational efforts to analyse the variability and rotational evolution of young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, proceedings for the workshop "Ultralow-mass star formation and evolution", to be published in AN (revised version

    Mira science with interferometry: a review

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    Model-predicted and observed properties of the brightness distribution on M-type Mira disks are discussed. Fundamental issues of limb-darkening and diameter definition, of assigning observational data to diameter-type quantities and of interpreting such quantities in terms of model diameters are outlined. The influence of model properties upon interpretation of measured data is clarified. The dependence of the centre-to-limb variation (CLV) of intensity on wavelength, on stellar parameters and on variablity phase and cycle may be used for analyzing the geometrical and physical structure of the Mira atmosphere, for determining fundamental stellar parameters, and for investigating the quality of models. Desirable future observations include simultaneous observations in different spectral features at different phases and cycles, observation of the position of the shock front and observation of the time- and wavelength-dependence of deviations from spherical symmetry.Comment: 9 pages, no figure

    Node similarity as a basic principle behind connectivity in complex networks

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    How are people linked in a highly connected society? Since in many networks a power-law (scale-free) node-degree distribution can be observed, power-law might be seen as a universal characteristics of networks. But this study of communication in the Flickr social online network reveals that power-law node-degree distributions are restricted to only sparsely connected networks. More densely connected networks, by contrast, show an increasing divergence from power-law. This work shows that this observation is consistent with the classic idea from social sciences that similarity is the driving factor behind communication in social networks. The strong relation between communication strength and node similarity could be confirmed by analyzing the Flickr network. It also is shown that node similarity as a network formation model can reproduce the characteristics of different network densities and hence can be used as a model for describing the topological transition from weakly to strongly connected societies.Comment: 6 pages in Journal of Data Mining & Digital Humanities (2015) jdmdh:3

    Derivatives and Default Risk

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    Upstream producers that possess market power, sell forwards with a lengthy duration to regional electricity companies (REC). As part of the liberalization of the electricity market, RECs have been privatized and exposed to a possible bankruptcy threat if spot prices have fallen below their expected value. The downstream firms’ expected profit is larger, when it is less likely to be bailed out, the effect on upstream profits is ambiguous while consumers loose. Options are less welfare increasing than forwards, but the difference is minimal. In the presence of bankruptcy, options are the preferred welfare maximizing market instrument

    E. Cartan's attempt at bridge-building between Einstein and the Cosserats -- or how translational curvature became to be known as {\em torsion}

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    \'Elie Cartan's "g\'en\'eralisation de la notion de courbure" (1922) arose from a creative evaluation of the geometrical structures underlying both, Einstein's theory of gravity and the Cosserat brothers generalized theory of elasticity. In both theories groups operating in the infinitesimal played a crucial role. To judge from his publications in 1922--24, Cartan developed his concept of generalized spaces with the dual context of general relativity and non-standard elasticity in mind. In this context it seemed natural to express the translational curvature of his new spaces by a rotational quantity (via a kind of Grassmann dualization). So Cartan called his translational curvature "torsion" and coupled it to a hypothetical rotational momentum of matter several years before spin was encountered in quantum mechanics.Comment: 36 p