2,474 research outputs found

    Pulsating young brown dwarfs

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    We present the results of a nonadiabatic, linear stability analysis of models of very low-mass stars (VLMSs) and brown dwarfs (BDs) during the deuterium burning phase in the center. We find unstable fundamental modes with periods varying between ~5 hr for a 0.1 Msun star and ~1 hr for a 0.02 Msun BD. The growth time of the instability decreases with decreasing mass and remains well below the deuterium burning time scale in the mass range considered (0.1--0.02 Msun). These results are robust against variations of the relevant input physics in the evolutionary models. We identify possible candidates for pulsational variability among known VLMSs and BDs in nearby star forming regions whose location in the HR diagram falls within or close to the boundary of the instability strip. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the variability observed in a few objects with periods of ~1 hr can be interpreted in terms of pulsation.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, A&A Letters (in press

    Effect of episodic accretion on the structure and the lithium depletion of low-mass stars and planet-hosting stars

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    Following up our recent analysis devoted to the impact of non steady accretion on the location of young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram, we perform a detailed analysis devoted to the effect of burst accretion on the internal structure of low-mass and solar type stars. We find that episodic accretion can produce objects with significantly higher central temperatures than the ones of the non accreting counterparts of same mass and age. As a consequence, lithium depletion can be severely enhanced in these objects. This provides a natural explanation for the unexpected level of lithium depletion observed in young objects for the inferred age of their parent cluster. These results confirm the limited reliability of lithium abundance as a criterion for assessing or rejecting cluster membership. They also show that lithium is not a reliable age indicator, because its fate strongly depends on the past accretion history of the star. Under the assumption that giant planets primarily form in massive disks prone to gravitational instability and thus to accretion burst episodes, the same analysis also explains the higher Li depletion observed in planet hosting stars. At last, we show that, depending on the burst rate and intensity, accretion outbursts can produce solar mass stars with lower convective envelope masses, at ages less than a few tens of Myr, than predicted by standard (non or slowly accreting) pre-main sequence models. This result has interesting, although speculative, implications for the recently discovered depletion of refractory elements in the Sun.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Scenarios to explain extreme Be depletion in solar-like stars: accretion or rotation effects ?

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    Studies of beryllium abundance in large samples of solar-type stars show a small fraction of extremely beryllium-deficient stars, which challenges our current understanding of light element depletion in these stars. We suggest two possible scenarios that may explain this high level of Be depletion: early accretion and rotational mixing. We show that in both cases, the conditions required to reach the observed level of Be depletion are quite extreme, which explains the very small fraction of detected Be outliers. We suggest that substantial Be depletion can be obtained in stars if they were fast rotators in the past, with high initial rotational velocities and short disc lifetimes. Our analysis suggests that rotational mixing may not be efficient enough to deplete Be in less than 10 Myr. Consequently, the detection of strongly Be-deficient stars in clusters younger than ‚ąľ\sim 10 Myr may provide a genuine signature of accretion process and the proof that some protostars may undergo many extreme bursts of accretion during their embedded phases of evolution.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Secondary Stars in CVs: The Theoretical Perspective

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    We apply the new generation of theoretical models of low-mass stars to secondaries in CVs, focussing on systems above the period gap. The models confirm that the spectral type should be a good indicator of the donor mass. The orbital period-spectral type diagram can potentially constrain the long-term mean mass transfer rate. A transfer rate that increases with decreasing period is most easily reconciled with the observational data.Comment: 6 pages; to appear in proceedings of Warner Symposium on Cataclysmic Variable

    Significant uncertainties from calibrating overshooting with eclipsing binary systems

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    The precise measurement of the masses and radii of stars in eclipsing binary systems provides a window into uncertain processes in stellar evolution, especially mixing at convective boundaries. Recently, these data have been used to calibrate models of convective overshooting in the cores of main sequence stars. In this study we have used a small representative sample of eclipsing binary stars with 1.25‚ȧM/M‚äô<4.21.25 \leq M/\text{M}_\odot < 4.2 to test how precisely this method can constrain the overshooting and whether the data support a universal stellar mass--overshooting relation. We do not recover the previously reported stellar mass dependence for the extent of overshooting and in each case we find there is a substantial amount of uncertainty, that is, the same binary pair can be matched by models with different amounts of overshooting. Models with a moderate overshooting parameter 0.013‚ȧfos‚ȧ0.0140.013 \leq f_\text{os} \leq 0.014 (using the scheme from Herwig et al. 1997) are consistent with all eight systems studied. Generally, a much larger range of fosf_\text{os} is suitable for individual systems. In the case of main sequence and early post-main sequence stars, large changes in the amount of overshooting have little effect on the radius and effective temperature, and therefore the method is of extremely limited utility.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Deuterium-burning in substellar objects

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    We consider the depletion of primordial deuterium in the interior of substellar objects as a function of mass, age and absolute magnitude in several photometric passbands. We characterize potential spectroscopic signatures of deuterium in the lines of deuterated water HDO. These results will serve as a useful, independent diagnostic to characterize the mass and/or the age of young substellar objects, and to provide an independent age determination of very young clusters. These results can serve to identify objects at the deuterium-burning limit and to confront the theoretical prediction that D-burning is a necessary condition to form star-like objects.Comment: 13 pages, Latex file, uses aasms4.sty, accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    The Double-Lined Spectroscopic Binary Haro 1-14c

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    We report detection of the low-mass secondary in the spectroscopic binary Haro 1-14c in the Ophiuchus star forming region. The secondary/primary mass ratio is 0.310¬Ī0.0140.310\pm 0.014. With an estimated photometric primary mass of 1.2 M‚äôM_{\odot}, the secondary mass is ‚ąľ0.4M‚äô\sim 0.4 M_{\odot} and the projected semi-major axis is ‚ąľ1.5\sim 1.5 AU. The system is well-suited for astrometric mapping of its orbit with the current generation of ground-based IR interferometers. This could yield precision values of the system's component masses and distance.Comment: Accepted by ApJ Letter
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