641 research outputs found

    Magnetic-field measurements of T Tauri stars in the Orion Nebula cluster

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    We present an analysis of high-resolution (R50,000R \sim 50,000) infrared K-band echelle spectra of 14 T Tauri stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We model Zeeman broadening in three magnetically sensitive \ion{Ti}{1} lines near $2.2\ \mu$m and consistently detect kilogauss-level magnetic fields in the stellar photospheres. The data are consistent in each case with the entire stellar surface being covered with magnetic fields, suggesting that magnetic pressure likely dominates over gas pressure in the photospheres of these stars. These very strong magnetic fields might themselves be responsible for the underproduction of X-ray emission of T Tauri stars relative to what is expected based on main-sequence star calibrations. We combine these results with previous measurements of 14 stars in Taurus and 5 stars in the TW Hydrae association to study the potential variation of magnetic-field properties during the first 10 million years of stellar evolution, finding a steady decline in total magnetic flux with age.Comment: 34 pages, 17 figures, published in ApJ, 2011, 729, 8

    Possible detection of a magnetic field in T Tauri

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    Medium-resolution (R15000)(R\simeq 15000) circular spectropolarimetry of T Tauri is presented. The star was observed twice: on November 11, 1996 and January 22, 2002. Weak circular polarization has been found in photospheric absorption lines, indicating a mean surface longitudinal magnetic field BB_{\|} of 160±40160\pm 40 G and 140±50140\pm 50 G at the epoch of the first and second observations respectively. While these values are near the detection limit of our apparatus, we belive that they are real. In any case one can conclude from our data that BB_{\|} of T Tau does not significantly exceed 200 G, which is much less than surface magnetic field strength of the star (>2.3>2.3 kG) found by Guenther et al. (1999) and Johns-Krull et al. (2000). We discuss possible reasons of this difference.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    How Hot is the Wind from TW Hydrae?

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    It has recently been suggested that the winds from Classical T Tauri stars in general, and the wind from TW Hya in particular, reaches temperatures of at least 300,000 K while maintaing a mass loss rate of 1011\sim 10^{-11} \Msol yr1^{-1} or larger. If confirmed, this would place strong new requirements on wind launching and heating models. We therefore re-examine spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite in an effort to better constrain the maximum temperature in the wind of TW Hya. We find clear evidence for a wind in the \ion{C}{2} doublet at 1037 \AA and in the \ion{C}{2} multiplet at 1335 \AA. We find no wind absorption in the \ion{C}{4} 1550 \AA doublet observed at the same time as the \ion{C}{2} 1335 \AA line or in observations of \ion{O}{6} observed simultaneously with the \ion{C}{2} 1037 \AA line. The presence or absence of \ion{C}{3} wind absorption is ambiguous. The clear lack of a wind in the \ion{C}{4} line argues that the wind from TW Hya does not reach the 100,000 K characteristic formation temperature of this line. We therefore argue that the available evidence suggests that the wind from TW Hya, and probably all classical T Tauri stars, reaches a maximum temperature in the range of 10,000 -- 30,000 K.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figures, Figure 1 in 2nd version fixes a small velocity scaling error and new revision adds a reference to an additional paper recently foun

    A Young Planet Search in Visible and IR Light: DN Tau, V836 Tau, and V827 Tau

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    In searches for low-mass companions to late-type stars, correlation between radial velocity variations and line bisector slope changes indicates contamination by large starspots. Two young stars demonstrate that this test is not sufficient to rule out starspots as a cause of radial velocity variations. As part of our survey for substellar companions to T Tauri stars, we identified the ~2 Myr old planet host candidates DN Tau and V836 Tau. In both cases, visible light radial velocity modulation appears periodic and is uncorrelated with line bisector span variations, suggesting close companions of several M_Jup in these systems. However, high-resolution, infrared spectroscopy shows that starspots cause the radial velocity variations. We also report unambiguous results for V827 Tau, identified as a spotted star on the basis of both visible light and infrared spectroscopy. Our results suggest that infrared follow up observations are critical for determining the source of radial velocity modulation in young, spotted stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    A Consistent Model of the Accretion Shock Region in Classical T Tauri Stars

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    We develop a consistent model of the accretion shock region in Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs). The initial conditions of the post-shock flow are determined by the irradiated shock precursor and the ionization state is calculated without assuming ionization equilibrium. Comparison with observations of the C IV resonance lines (λλ 1550 Å) for CTTSs indicate that the post-shock emission predicted by the model is too large, for a reasonable range of parameters. If the model is to reproduce the observations, C IV emission from CTTSs has to be dominated by pre-shock emission, for stars with moderate to large accretion rates. For stars with low accretion rates, the observations suggest a comparable contribution between the pre- and post-shock regions. These conclusions are consistent with previous results indicating that the post-shock will be buried under the stellar photosphere for moderate to large accretion rates

    Starspot-induced optical and infrared radial velocity variability in T Tauri star Hubble 4

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    We report optical (6150 Ang) and K-band (2.3 micron) radial velocities obtained over two years for the pre-main sequence weak-lined T Tauri star Hubble I 4. We detect periodic and near-sinusoidal radial velocity variations at both wavelengths, with a semi-amplitude of 1395\pm94 m/s in the optical and 365\pm80 m/s in the infrared. The lower velocity amplitude at the longer wavelength, combined with bisector analysis and spot modeling, indicates that there are large, cool spots on the stellar surface that are causing the radial velocity modulation. The radial velocities maintain phase coherence over hundreds of days suggesting that the starspots are long-lived. This is one of the first active stars where the spot-induced velocity modulation has been resolved in the infrared.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa