40 research outputs found

    Constraints on the shallow elastic and anelastic structure of Mars from InSight seismic data

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    Mars’s seismic activity and noise have been monitored since January 2019 by the seismometer of the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander. At night, Mars is extremely quiet; seismic noise is about 500 times lower than Earth’s microseismic noise at periods between 4 s and 30 s. The recorded seismic noise increases during the day due to ground deformations induced by convective atmospheric vortices and ground-transferred wind-generated lander noise. Here we constrain properties of the crust beneath InSight, using signals from atmospheric vortices and from the hammering of InSight’s Heat Flow and Physical Properties (HP3) instrument, as well as the three largest Marsquakes detected as of September 2019. From receiver function analysis, we infer that the uppermost 8–11 km of the crust is highly altered and/ or fractured. We measure the crustal diffusivity and intrinsic attenuation using multiscattering analysis and find that seismic attenuation is about three times larger than on the Moon, which suggests that the crust contains small amounts of volatiles

    SEIS first year: nm/s^2 (and less) broadband seismology on Mars and first steps in Mars-Earth-Moon comparative seismology. (Invited)

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    AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco , 9-13 December 2019EIS/InSIght teamInSight is the first planetary mission with a seismometer package, SEIS, since the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package. SEIS is complimented by APSS, which has as a goal to document the atmospheric source of seismic noise and signals. Since June 2019, SEIS has been delivering 6 axis 20 sps continuous seismic data, a rate one order of magnitude larger originally planned. More than 50 events have been detected by the end of July 2019 but only three have amplitudes significantly above the SEIS instrument requirement. Two have clear and coherent arrivals of P and S waves, enabling location, diffusion/attenuation characterization and receiver function analysis. The eventÂżs magnitudes are likely Âż 3 and no clear surface waves nor deep interior phases have been identified. This suggests deep events with scattering along their final propagation paths and with large propagation differences as compared to Earth and Moon quakes. Most of the eventÂżs detections are made possible due to the very low noise achieved by the instrument installation strategy and the very low VBB self-noise. Most of the SEIS signals have amplitudes of spectral densities in the 0.03-5Hz frequency bandwidth ranging from 10-10 m/s2/Hz1/2 to 5 10-9 m/s2/Hz1/2. The smallest noise levels occurs during the early night, with angstrom displacements or nano-radian tilts. This monitors the elastic and seismic interaction of a planetary surface with its atmosphere, illustrated not only by a wide range of SEIS signals correlated with pressure vortexes, dust devils or wind activity but also by modulation of resonances above 1 Hz, amplified by ultra-low velocity surface layers. After about one half of a Martian year, clear seasonal changes appear also in the noise, which will be discussed. One year after landing, the seismic noise is therefore better and better understood, and noise correction techniques begun to be implemented, either thanks to the APSS wind and pressure sensors, or by SEIS only data processing techniques. These data processing techniques open not only the possibility of better signal to noise ratio of the events, but are also used for various noise auto-correlation techniques as well as searches of long period signals. Noise and seismic signals on Mars are therefore completely different from what seismology encountered previously on Earth and Moon