1,987 research outputs found

    Effect of Dewaxed Coffee on Gastroesophageal Symptoms in Patients with {GERD}: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Get PDF
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is multifactorial pathogenesis characterized by the abnormal reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. Symptoms are worse after the ingestion of certain foods, such as coffee. Hence, a randomized pilot study conducted on 40 Italian subjects was assessed to verify the effect of standard (SC) and dewaxed coffee (DC) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. The assessment of patient diaries highlighted a significant percentage reduction of symptoms frequency when consuming DC and a significant increase in both heartburn-free and regurgitation-free days. Consequentially, patients had a significant increase of antacid-free days during the DC assumption. Moreover, the polyphenolic profile of coffee pods was ascertained through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were the most abundant investigated compounds with a concentration level ranging between 7.316 (DC) and 6.721 mg/g (SC). Apart from CGAs, caffeine was quantified at a concentration level of 5.691 mg/g and 11.091 for DC and SC, respectively. While still preliminary, data obtained from the present pilot study provide promising evidence for the efficacy of DC consumption in patients with GERD. Therefore, this treatment might represent a feasible way to make coffee more digestible and better tolerated

    Good adherence to mediterranean diet can prevent gastrointestinal symptoms: A survey from Southern Italy.

    Get PDF
    AIM: To evaluate how different levels of adherence to a mediterranean diet (MD) correlate with the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders. METHODS: As many as 1134 subjects (598 M and 536 F; age range 17-83 years) were prospectively investigated in relation to their dietary habits and the presence of functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients with relevant chronic organic disease were excluded from the study. The Mediterranean Diet Quality index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) and the Short Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire were administered. All subjects were grouped into five categories according to their ages: 17-24 years; 25-34; 35-49; 50-64; above 64. RESULTS: On the basis of the Rome III criteria, our population consisted of 719 (63.4%) individuals who did not meet the criteria for any functional disorder and were classified as controls (CNT), 172 (13.3%) patients meeting criteria for prevalent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 243 (23.3%) meeting criteria for prevalent functional dyspepsia (FD). A significantly lower adherence score in IBS (0.57 ± 0.23, P < 0.001) and FD (0.56 ± 0.24, P < 0.05) was found compared to CNT (0.62 ± 0.21). Females with FD and IBS exhibited significantly lower adherence scores (respectively 0.58 ± 0.24, P < 0.05 and 0.56 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) whereas males were significantly lower only for FD (0.53 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). Age cluster analyses showed a significantly lower score in the 17-24 years and 25-34 year categories for FD (17-24 years: 0.44 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 25-34 years: 0.48 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and IBS (17-24 years: 0.45 ± 0.20, P < 0.05; 24-34 years: 0.44 ± 0.21, P < 0.001) compared to CNT (17-24 years: 0.56 ± 0.21; 25-34 years: 0.69 ± 0.20). CONCLUSION: Low adherence to MD may trigger functional gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly in younger subjects. Moreover, with increasing age, patients tend to adopt dietary regimens closer to MD

    Taste and Smell: A Unifying Chemosensory Theory

    Get PDF
    Since antiquity, the sense of smell (olfaction) is considered as a distance sense, just like sight and hearing. Conversely, the sense of taste (gustation) is thought to operate by direct contact, similarly to touch. With the progress of natural sciences, information at molecular, anatomical, and neurobiological levels has also contributed to the taste-smell dichotomy, but much evidence inconsistent with a sharp differentiation of these two senses has emerged, especially when considering species other than humans. In spite of this, conflicting information has been interpreted so that it could conform to the traditional differentiation. As a result, a confirmation bias is currently affecting scientific research on chemosensory systems and is also hindering the development of a satisfactory narrative of the evolution of chemical communication across taxa. From this perspective, the chemosensory dichotomy loses its validity and usefulness. We thus propose the unification of all chemosensory modalities into a single sense, moving toward a synthetic, complex, and interconnected perspective on the gradual processes by which a vast variety of chemicals have become signals that are crucially important to communication among and within cells, organs, and organisms in a wide variety of environmental condition

    Taste and Smell: A Unifying Chemosensory Theory

    Get PDF
    Since antiquity, the sense of smell (olfaction) is considered as a distance sense, just like sight and hear- ing. Conversely, the sense of taste (gustation) is thought to operate by direct contact, similarly to touch. With the progress of natural sciences, information at molecular, anatomical, and neurobiological levels has also contributed to the taste-smell dichotomy, but much evidence inconsistent with a sharp differenti- ation of these two senses has emerged, especially when considering species other than humans. In spite of this, conflicting information has been interpreted so that it could conform to the traditional differentia- tion. As a result, a confirmation bias is currently affecting scientific research on chemosensory systems and is also hindering the development of a satisfactory narrative of the evolution of chemical communi- cation across taxa. From this perspective, the chemosensory dichotomy loses its validity and usefulness. We thus propose the unification of all chemosensory modalities into a single sense, moving toward a synthetic, complex, and interconnected perspective on the gradual processes by which a vast variety of chemicals have become signals that are crucially important to communication among and within cells, organs, and or- ganisms in a wide variety of environmental conditions

    Demonstration in human cadavers of feasibility of ileoproctostomy performed entirely through a transanal route

    Get PDF
    Innovative surgical techniques are frequently developed in animal models before of trials in surgical patients. However, these experimental approaches do not permit a perfect evaluation of feasibility due to obvious anatomical differences between humans and animals. The Body Donation Program of the University of Padua has recently developed studies of feasibility on human cadavers of new surgical approaches. Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an innovative kinf of surgery which utilizes a flexible endoscope to enter the abdominal, pelvic or thoracic cavities through the body’s natural orifices and then through an internal incision. Skin incisions are thus unnecessary and, as a consequence, tissue trauma, postoperative pain, and incision-related complications are minimized and less anaesthesia is required. The aim of the present study was to verify in human cadavers the technical feasibility of a new NOTES technique, i.e., ileoproctostomy performed entirely through a transanal access. This surgical procedure was previously performed only in a porcine model. The procedure was carried out in three human cadavers (two males and a female). One cadaver was fresh. The other cadavers were fixed through infusion of Thiel’s solution through the larger arteries. A Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) device and endoscopic instruments were utilized. The study demonstrated that ileoproctostomy through a transanal access is technically feasible in humans. The principal steps of the procedure were: placement of the TEM device; rectal perforation above the peritoneal reflection; peritoneoscopy using a standard gastroscope; grasping the small bowel with retrieval forceps and pulling it through the rectal hole; suturing the ileum and the rectum together with two semi-circular continuous sutures utilizing the TEM device; opening the ileal loop from the rectal side followed by endoscopic exploration. Although still at an experimental stage, ileoproctostomy through a transanal access is technically feasible in humans. In planning new procedures, a fundamental step is represented by feasibility tests on donated corpse

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Get PDF
    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV