9 research outputs found

    Diagnostic Test Accuracy of the Red Reflex Test for Ocular Pathology in Infants:A Meta-analysis

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    IMPORTANCE: Red reflex testing is a simple and inexpensive method implemented in many countries as an important part of infant screening for ocular pathologies. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of the red reflex test in infant screening for ocular pathologies and to perform meta-analyses to provide summary estimates. DATA SOURCES: The following literature databases were searched for English-language, peer-reviewed literature, published until April 19, 2020: Cochrane Central, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, KCI-Korean Journal Database, Russian Science Citation Index, SciELO Citation Index, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility criteria were defined according to population (studies of consecutively screened infants), exposure (red reflex or Brückner test as the index test), comparator (any ophthalmological examination), and study type (any study with diagnostic test accuracy data). DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA) guidelines were followed. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors. For summary estimates of diagnostic test accuracy, the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve was used. Prevalence of ocular pathologies was introduced for a prevalence meta-analysis, which was then used in calculations of diagnostic accuracy of the red reflex test when applied in infant screening. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: True-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative findings; sensitivity; specificity; and positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 8713 unique infants from 5 unique studies were eligible for qualitative and quantitative review. All studies used the red reflex test without pupillary dilation and were compared with a reference test performed with pupillary dilation. For any ocular pathology, an estimated sensitivity of 7.5% (95% CI, 7.4%-7.5%) and specificity of 97.5% (95% CI, 97.5%-97.5%) was found. Focusing on ocular pathologies that required a medical or surgical intervention, sensitivity improved to 17.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-84.8%) and specificity remained high at 97.6% (95% CI, 87.7%-99.6%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that an abnormal red reflex finding most likely reflects an underlying ocular pathology. However, a normal red reflex finding during screening does not exclude ocular disease

    Cataract Surgery with or without Intraocular Lens Implantation in Pediatric Uveitis:A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

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    PURPOSE: To systematically review the results of comparative studies of modern cataract surgery in pediatric uveitis with or without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and to perform comparative meta-analyses to compare visual acuity outcomes and complication rates. METHODS: On 12 November 2020, we systematically searched the Cochrane Central, PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and all affiliated databases of the Web of Science. Two authors independently reviewed studies and extracted data. Studies were reviewed qualitatively in text and quantitatively with meta-analyses. Outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), inflammation control, and rates of postoperative complications. RESULTS: Ten studies of 288 eyes were eligible for review of which the majority were eyes with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Summary estimates revealed that the BCVA was better in pseudophakic eyes vs. aphakic eyes (1-year postoperative: −0.23 logMAR, 95% CI: −0.43 to −0.03 logMAR, P=0.027; 5-year postoperative: −0.35 logMAR, 95% CI: −0.51 to −0.18 logMAR, P=0.000036). Pseudophakic eyes had more visual axis opacification (OR 6.76, 95% CI: 2.73 to 16.8, P=0.000036) and less hypotony (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.95, P=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: In modern era cataract surgery on eyes with pediatric uveitis with IOL implantation leads to satisfactory and superior visual outcomes and no differences in complication rates apart from an increased prevalence of visual axis opacification and a decreased prevalence of hypotony when compared to aphakia. However, limitations of the retrospective design and the presence of selection bias necessitate a careful interpretation

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28–2·40], p\textless0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65–3·22], p\textless0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3–5 versus grades 1–2 (2·35 [1·57–3·53], p\textless0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01–2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06–2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01–2·31], p=0·047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research

    Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy:Muscle and Fat Involvement in relation to Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy

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    Purpose. We wanted to investigate the relative significance of fat and muscle enlargement in the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods. Preoperative coronal CT scans of 13 patients with and without DON who subsequently underwent orbital decompression were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients imaged for unilateral orbital fractures served as controls. Results. The retrobulbar muscle volume was 2.1 ± 0.5 cm(3) (mean ± SD) in controls, 4.3 ± 1.5 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 4.7 ± 1.7 cm(3) in GO with DON. The retrobulbar fat volume was 5.4 ± 1.6 cm(3) in controls, 8.7 ± 8.0 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 9.4 ± 3.1 cm(3) in GO with DON. The muscle and fat volumes were higher in patients with GO than in controls (P < 0.001), but the volumes in orbits with and without DON were not significantly different. The volume of the optic nerve were similar in the 3 groups. The number of apical, coronal 2 mm thick slices with no fat was 2.9 ± 0.9 in normal orbits, it was 4.1 ± 1.0 in GO orbits without DON and 5.3 ± 0.8 in GO orbits with DON (P = 0.007). Conclusion. Apical muscle enlargement may be more important than orbital fat enlargement in the development of DON. However, the fact that apical crowding and muscle enlargement also occur in orbits without DON suggests that other factors also play a role in the development of DON