Archivio istituzionale della ricerca - Università dell'Insubria
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    51825 research outputs found

    El léxico cubano de la gestión de la esclavitud en un manual técnico del siglo xix: Cartilla practica del manejo de ingenios ó fincas destinadas a producir azúcar (1862)

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    Cartilla practica (1862) es una de las obras técnicas centrales en el contexto de la Cuba colonial: además de describir detalladamente el ingenio azucarero, es una de las pocas obras en enfrentarse al tema de la administración de los esclavos. El estudio investiga esta dimensión desde una perspectiva léxica, a través del análisis morfosemántico y de la visibilidad en la lexicografía y en las obras de la época de las voces empleadas en el manual. El examen ha revelado la presencia de características propias de un léxico diatécnico en una etapa avanzada de su historia, como la nominalización, la tendencia a la sintagmación y una atención a la precisión. Finalmente, la investigación evidencia la necesidad de un enfoque que considere el vínculo entre la lengua y el contexto extralingüístico

    Towards rapid modeling and prototyping of indoor and outdoor monitoring applications

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    Nowadays, the capability to remotely monitor indoor and outdoor environments would allow to reduce energy consumption and improve the overall management and users’ experience of network application systems. The most known solutions adopting remote control are related to domotics (e.g., smart homes and industry 4.0 applications). An important stimulus for the development of such smart approaches is the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and the increasing investment in the development of green houses, buildings, and, in general, heterogeneous environments. While the benefits for the humans and the environment are evident, a pervasive adoption and distribution of remote monitoring solutions are hindered by the following issue: modeling, designing, prototyping, and further developing the remote applications and underlying architecture require a certain amount of time. Moreover, such systems must be often customized on the basis of the need of the specific domain and involved entities. For such reasons, in this paper, we provide the experience made in addressing some relevant indoor and outdoor case studies through IoT-targeted tools, technologies and protocols, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of the considered solutions as well as insights that can be useful for future practitioners

    Discrete half-logistic distributions with applications in reliability and risk analysis

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    In the statistical literature, several discrete distributions have been developed so far for modeling non-negative integer-valued phenomena, yet there is still room for new counting models that adequately capture the diversity of real data sets. Here, we first discuss a count distribution derived as a discrete analogue of the continuous half-logistic distribution, which is obtained by preserving the expression of its survival function at each non-negative integer support point. The proposed discrete distribution has a mode at zero and allows for overdispersion; these two features make it suitable for modeling purposes in many fields (e.g., insurance and ecology), when these conditions are satisfied by the data. In order to widen its spectrum of applications, a discrete analogue is also presented of the type I generalized half-logistic distribution (obtained by adding a shape parameter to the simple one-parameter half-logistic), which allows us to model count data whose mode is not necessarily zero. For these new count distributions, the main statistical properties are outlined, and parameter estimation along with related issues is discussed. Their feasibility is proved on two real data sets taken from the literature, which have already been fitted by other well-established count distributions. Finally, a possible application is illustrated in the insurance field, related to the exact/approximate determination of the distribution of the total claims amount through the well-known Panjer’s recursive formula, within the framework of collective risk models

    Asymptotic spectra of large (grid) graphs with a uniform local structure, Part II: Numerical applications

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    In the current work we are concerned with sequences of graphs having a grid geometry, with a uniform local structure in a bounded domain Ω⊂Rd, d≥1. When Ω=[0,1], such graphs include the standard Toeplitz graphs and, for Ω=[0,1]d, the considered class includes d-level Toeplitz graphs. In the general case, the underlying sequence of adjacency matrices has a canonical eigenvalue distribution, in the Weyl sense, and it has been shown in the theoretical part of this work that we can associate to it a symbol f. The knowledge of the symbol and of its basic analytical features provides key information on the eigenvalue structure in terms of localization, spectral gap, clustering, and global distribution. In the present paper, many different applications are discussed and various numerical examples are presented in order to underline the practical use of the developed theory. Tests and applications are mainly obtained from the approximation of differential operators via numerical schemes such as Finite Differences, Finite Elements, and Isogeometric Analysis. Moreover, we show that more applications can be taken into account, since the results presented here can be applied as well to study the spectral properties of adjacency matrices and Laplacian operators of general large graphs and networks, whenever the involved matrices enjoy a uniform local structure

    Unlocking cardiac motion: assessing software and machine learning for single-cell and cardioid kinematic insights

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    The heart coordinates its functional parameters for optimal beat-to-beat mechanical activity. Reliable detection and quantification of these parameters still represent a hot topic in cardiovascular research. Nowadays, computer vision allows the development of open-source algorithms to measure cellular kinematics. However, the analysis software can vary based on analyzed specimens. In this study, we compared different software performances in in-silico model, in-vitro mouse adult ventricular cardiomyocytes and cardioids. We acquired in-vitro high-resolution videos during suprathreshold stimulation at 0.5-1-2 Hz, adapting the protocol for the cardioids. Moreover, we exposed the samples to inotropic and depolarizing substances. We analyzed in-silico and in-vitro videos by (i) MUSCLEMOTION, the gold standard among open-source software; (ii) CONTRACTIONWAVE, a recently developed tracking software; and (iii) ViKiE, an in-house customized video kinematic evaluation software. We enriched the study with three machine-learning algorithms to test the robustness of the motion-tracking approaches. Our results revealed that all software produced comparable estimations of cardiac mechanical parameters. For instance, in cardioids, beat duration measurements at 0.5 Hz were 1053.58 ms (MUSCLEMOTION), 1043.59 ms (CONTRACTIONWAVE), and 937.11 ms (ViKiE). ViKiE exhibited higher sensitivity in exposed samples due to its localized kinematic analysis, while MUSCLEMOTION and CONTRACTIONWAVE offered temporal correlation, combining global assessment with time-efficient analysis. Finally, machine learning reveals greater accuracy when trained with MUSCLEMOTION dataset in comparison with the other software (accuracy > 83%). In conclusion, our findings provide valuable insights for the accurate selection and integration of software tools into the kinematic analysis pipeline, tailored to the experimental protocol

    One or two frequencies? The Iterative Filtering answers

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    The Iterative Filtering method is a technique aimed at the decomposition of non-stationary and non-linear signals into simple oscillatory components. This method, proposed a decade ago as an alternative technique to the Empirical Mode Decomposition, has been used extensively in many applied fields of research and studied, from a mathematical point of view, in several papers published in the last few years. However, even if its convergence and stability are now established both in the continuous and discrete setting, it is still an open problem to understand up to what extent this approach can separate two close-by frequencies contained in a signal. In this paper, first we recall previously discovered theoretical results about Iterative Filtering. Afterward, we prove a few new theorems regarding the ability of this method in separating two nearby frequencies both in the case of continuously and discrete sampled signals. Among them, we prove a theorem which allows to construct filters which captures, up to machine precision, a specific frequency. We run numerical tests to confirm our findings and to compare the performance of Iterative Filtering with the one of Empirical Mode Decomposition and Synchrosqueezing methods. All the results presented confirm the ability of the technique under investigation in addressing the fundamental “one or two frequencies” question

    Actinoplanes oblitus sp. nov., producing the glycopeptide antibiotic A477

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    In 1973, Eli Lilly and Company described the filamentous actinomycete producing the glycopeptide antibiotic A477 as an Actino-planes species on the basis of its morphological and physiological features and deposited it as NRRL 3884T. In this paper, we report that the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the whole genome phylogenomic study indicate that NRRL 3884T forms a distinct monophyletic line within the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actino-planes octamycinicus NBRC 14524T [99.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, 89.4 % average nucleotide identity (ANI), 46.0 % digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH)] and Actinoplanes ianthinogenes NBRC 13996T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, 89.0 % ANI, 47.0 % dDDH). NRRL 3884T forms an extensively branched, non-fragmented vegetative mycelium; either sterile aerial hyphae or regular subglobose sporangia are formed depending on cultivation conditions. The cell wall contains meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid and 2,6-diamino-3-hydroxypimelic acid and the diagnostic sugars are glucose, mannose and ribose with a minor amount of rhamnose. The predominant menaquinone (MK) is MK-9(H4), with minor amounts of MK-9(H2), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). Mycolic acids are absent. The diagnostic phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids are anteiso-C17: 0, iso-C16: 0 and iso-C15: 0, with moderate amounts of anteiso-C15: 0 and iso-C17: 0 . The genomic G+C content is 71.5 mol%. Significant differences in the genomic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical data between NRRL 3884T and the two most closely related Actinoplanes type strains clearly demonstrate that NRRL 3884T represents a novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, for which the name Actinoplanes oblitus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRRL 3884T (=DSM 116196T)

    Biochar production from the pyrolysis of food waste: Characterization and implications for its use

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    Food waste (FW) represents a large group of wastes that impose several issues on their management, especially in terms of microbiological and leaching pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. According to the EU circular economy vision, finding a new way for FW valorisation to obtain reusable materials or compounds represents a priority. Thermal treatment represents one of the suitable ways for FW processing, and pyrolysis in particular presents many advantages in producing solid carbonaceous biochar, reusable oil and gas. This paper analyses biochar that was produced via thermal pyrolysis of FW. The influence of an organic additive (wooden sawdust) and a catalyst (zeolite) on the pyrolytic process at 600 °C was investigated. The results highlight how the initial composition of the feedstock (FS) influenced the characteristics of the obtained biochar. The addition of organic additives and catalyst did not change significantly the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and the calorific value. For all the analysed parameters, all tested FS respected the guidelines proposed by International Biochar Initiative (IBI) and the European Biochar Certificate (EBC) for possible reuse in agriculture and urban areas. The results suggest that biochar from FW could be potentially used in agriculture and urban green infrastructure, but the authors suggest further studies, especially on the effect of high electrical conductivity due to the typical high concentration of salts in FW

    Characteristics and outcomes of surgically staged multiple classifier endometrial cancer

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    Objective: The growing adoption of molecular and genomic characterization is changing the current landscape of treatment of endometrial cancer patients. Using the surrogate molecular classification, endometrial cancer patients can be classified in four subgroups: POLE mutated (POLEmut), MMRd/MSI-H, p53 abnormal (p53abn), and no specific mutational profile (NSMP). However, some patients can harbor two or more molecular features (defined as multiple classifier). Since the rarity of this occurrence, evidence regarding multiple classifiers is still limited. Here, we described characteristics and outcomes of multiple classifiers. Methods: This is a multi-institutional retrospective study. Data of consecutive patients having 2 or more molecular features were collected. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard methods. Results: Charts of 72 multiple classifiers were reviewed. Median (range) follow-up was 9.8 (1.2, 37.5) months. Overall, 31 (43%) patients had POLEmut. Patients with POLEmut-MMRd/MSI-H, POLEmut-p53abn, and POLEmut-MMRd/MSI-H-p53abn were 6 (8.3%), 20 (27.8%), and 5 (6.9%), respectively. Among those 31 patients, no recurrence occurred within a median follow-up of 10.5 months (only seven (22.6%) patients had at least 2-year follow-up). The remaining 41 (56.9%) patients were diagnosed with tumors harboring both p53 and MMRd/MSI-H. Among them, four (9.8%) recurrences occurred at a median follow-up time of 8.9 months. Adjuvant therapy (other than vaginal brachytherapy) was administered in 5/31 (16%) and 25/41 (61%) patients with and without POLEmut, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Multiple classifiers endometrial cancer with POLEmut are characterized by good prognosis even in case of presence of MMRd/MSI-H and/or p53abn. Additional studies with long-term follow-up are needed

    An experience in the evaluation of fault prediction

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    Background ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves are widely used to represent the performance (i.e., degree of correctness) of fault proneness models. AUC, the Area Under the ROC Curve is a quite popular performance metric, which summarizes into a single number the goodness of the predictions represented by the ROC curve. Alternative techniques have been proposed for evaluating the performance represented by a ROC curve: among these are RRA (Ratio of Relevant Areas) and φ (alias Matthews Correlation Coefficient). Objectives In this paper, we aim at evaluating AUC as a performance metric, also with respect to alternative proposals. Method We carry out an empirical study by replicating a previously published fault prediction study and measuring the performance of the obtained faultiness models using AUC, RRA, and a recently proposed way of relating a specific kind of ROC curves to φ, based on iso-φ ROC curves, i.e., ROC curves with constant φ. We take into account prevalence, i.e., the proportion of faulty modules in the dataset that is the object of predictions. Results AUC appears to provide indications that are concordant with φ for fairly balanced datasets, while it is much more optimistic than φ for quite imbalanced datasets. RRA’s indications appear to be moderately affected by the degree of balance in a dataset. In addition, RRA appears to agree with φ. Conclusions Based on the collected evidence, AUC does not seem to be suitable for evaluating the performance of fault proneness models when used with imbalanced datasets. In these cases, using RRA can be a better choice. At any rate, more research is needed to generalize these conclusions

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